Release notes

These are the complete release notes for the latest build, starting with the very first release 2.0 on Windows in July 1992. A shorter list of just the most recent changes is also available.

 Hamilton C shell(tm) for Windows(R) Release Notes 5.1.c Copyright (c) 1989-2012 by Hamilton Laboratories. All rights reserved. Change Summary The basic release history for the C shell has been: Dec 1988 1.0 First release, running on OS/2 1.0. Jan 1989 1.01 Cleanup and final release for OS/2 1.0 Feb 1989 1.02 First release for OS/2 1.1 (Presentation Manager). Mar 1989 1.03 Cleanup and base release for OS/2 1.1. Aug 1989 1.04 Command line editing and filename and command completion added. Mar 1990 1.05 Support for OS/2 1.2, HPFS and long filenames added along with many important utilities including grep, diff, head, tail, sed, etc. Feb 1991 1.06 Support for user-defined screen colors, inheritable local variables, higher performance, etc. Jul 1992 2.0 First release from a unified codebase supporting OS/2 and Windows NT. Apr 1993 2.1 Support for Berkeley mode scripts, better error diagnostics, support for Windows NT March beta. Sep 1993 2.2 Complete rebuild for Windows NT final release. Support for starting Win3.x apps seamlessly from the command line under OS/2 2.x. Addition of the cron utility. Aug 1998 2.3 Full support for #! syntax. Jun 2003 3.0 New build for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 using Microsoft Visual Studio .Net 2003 that adds automatic install and uninstall, on-line hypertext documentation and PowerPoint tutorials. Support for OS/2 and RISC versions of NT is dropped. Jun 2009 4.0 New 32-bit and 64-bit builds for Windows 7, Vista and earlier versions of Windows using Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. New ... line-at-a-time command substitution. Jul 2010 4.1 Full Unicode / UTF-8 versions of many of the utilities, an improved su, support for Windows 7 elevation and code-signing of the .msi install file and all the .exe files. Oct 2011 5.0 Better support for Windows conventions regarding ACLs in mv, cp and chmod. New splitstring and findinclude samples added. Much improved su (superuser) utility for Windows 7. Aug 2012 5.1 Brand new documentation. Along the way, Hamilton C shell has grown from about 35,000 lines of C to more than 160,000 lines. All of it has been created from scratch by Hamilton Laboratories. Not one line was ported from or written on anything but OS/2 or Windows. This document will contain a detailed summary of all the changes made along the way from one release to another, beginning with the initial 2.0 release for NT. Changes which only affect certain builds (e.g., OS/2) are so indicated. Changes are presented chronologically, so if you're updating from a previous release, you'll want to jump in somewhere in the middle to start reading. At the very end of this document is a short list of the known bugs and limitations. You'll also find contact information in case you encounter a problem or have a suggestion. Fix Level 2.0 Changes: 1. First release from a new unified codebase from which both OS/2 and Windows NT versions can be built. 2. The shell and all the utilities have been fixed so they no longer routinely translate a filename to lower case before trying to open it. That didn't work in situations with an NFS network connection to a UNIX system with case-sensitive filenames. Fix Level 2.0.a Changes: 3. [OS/2] The 2.0 version of ls wasn't adding up the allocated sizes of directories properly when using the -Lw options. It does now. Fix Level 2.0.b Changes: 4. [OS/2] The C shell can now be run when escaping to the command line from the OS/2 1.x and 2.0 installation disks. 5. [NT/MIPS] Final cleanup on the C shell codebase to make it portable to the MIPS RISC processor under NT. 6. [NT] Trying to run a .bat or .cmd file started cmd.exe, but didn't actually run the script. It does now. 7. [NT/x86] A codegen error in the compiler caused :s/.../.../ operations to trash the heap, causing the C shell to crash randomly. 8. [NT] A minor bug in the common routines used to read number pad keystrokes was fixed. 9. [NT] A number of bugs in tar.exe that caused it problems opening new tar files and setting or reporting timestamps on files extracted from or listed in a tar file were fixed. 10. [NT] More no longer fails with a complaint that it can't scroll or fill the console if, e.g., you go to the end of a file, page down and then search backward for text that's not found. The console api's were erroneously reporting failures when in fact they worked fine. Fix Level 2.0.c Changes: 11. [NT] The common screen painting library used by the shell and a number of the utilities would sometimes set the cursor incorrectly if scrolling was involved. It should now be correct. 12. [NT] cut.exe couldn't read files specified on the command line. It can now. 13. The di (diff interactive) alias for diff -b! (merged diff using color, ignoring white space differences) has been added to startup.csh and the definition for the mi (more interactive) alias has been fixed for NT. 14. [NT] ver.csh was added to the bin directory. 15. [NT] The common keyboard routines now recognize ctrl-H as the same as a backspace and ctrl-[ as an escape. Fix Level 2.0.d Changes: 16. A long-standing bug in the shell's command line editing routines that could cause the screen to be painted incorrectly has been corrected. 17. [NT] A bug in the common seek logic used in tar, tail, and xd caused them to have problems reading files that came in over a pipe on stdin. That problem has been fixed. binedit, more, sed and tee used the same logic and were recompiled even though they were unaffected. 18. A long-standing, but usually benign bug in the more filter's ISAM mechanism was fixed. 19. The shell no longer complains under NT nor fails under OS/2 if one tries to edit a history reference (e.g., with !!:s/X/Y/) that's > 64K. 20. [OS/2] dskwrite now properly detects and autoformats any unformatted disks it's given as disks 2 or following when using dskwrite -ac. 21. The sizeof sample script has been improved to run a bit faster and to avoid problems running out of memory in the C shell if a big directory is being measured. Fix Level 2.0.e Changes: 22. [NT] The common keyboard routines have been fixed to silently gobble up CapsLock keystrokes. They were being passed through to the application. The shell, mv, cp, rm and more were affected. 23. [NT] The help screens for label, more and tar and for the internal commands hashstat, kill and ps have been edited to replace references to OS/2 with NT. 24. eval -h now indicates "success" as its return value. (It no longer causes a loop to exit.) 25. [NT] The C shell no longer litters the output generated by the setenv command with current directory variables such as "=C:". Also, it now correctly reads all current directories out of the environment at startup. 26. [NT] The C shell now properly treats environmental variable names as case-insensitive. (They're still case sensitive under OS/2.) The set, unset and @ statements are case-sensitive (that's so you can still create shell variables that differ from environmental variables only by case) but the setenv and unsetenv statements and var and other variable references first try case-sensitive, then case-insensitive variable lookups. Fix Level 2.0.f Changes: 27. [NT] The NT version of the C shell can now determine, just as the OS/2 version can, whether a child will run in the same or a different window. If it's a different window, the shell immediately prompts for a new command. 28. [NT] hlabel.exe now includes a warning in the help screen that setting the volume label is disabled under NT due to a kernel limitation. Also, it properly gives an error message if you type "label a:foo". Fix Level 2.0.g Changes: 29. [NT/x86] rm -x was broken in the 2.0.e build when we switched to the July SDK compiler; the optimizer generated bad code that we didn't spot. Rebuilding with optimization turned off with pragmas fixed the problem. Fix Level 2.0.h Changes: 30. All the utilities have been cleaned up in preparation for the 32-bit release for OS/2 2.0. 31. binedit, chmod, dim, fgrep and head no longer routinely translate filenames to lower case, thus avoiding any problems with mixed-case filesystems. 32. [OS/2] more no longer has problems forward or backward searching across more than 32,000 lines. 33. When moreh [OS/2] or hmore [NT] recognizes that it's reading from a file, meaning it can use seeks to re-read any data it discards, it now buffers only a 100K window into the file. That reduces swapping under OS/2 and dramatically improves heap performance under NT without sacrificing functionality. 34. [NT] The C shell now correctly recognizes that it must wait for DOS apps to complete before prompting for another command. 35. [NT] The C shell now responds to Close events from the pull-down on its window. Fix Level 2.0.i Changes: 36. [OS/2] markexe now understands how to mark 32-bit 2.0 applications. 37. The ts.csh script was broken when quoting rules inside a backquoted string were changed at release 1.06 but went unnoticed until now. The fix was to delete the now superfluous escaped single quotes. 38. If filename completion matched a file with a ! in the name, it wouldn't always escape it. Sometimes it'd just single quote it, causing it to be mistaken for a history reference. 39. des had a couple bugs. Under NT, it would often fail with a divide by zero due to improper initialization. And under both NT and OS/2, it didn't handle EOF if data was being read from stdin properly. Both problems have been fixed. Fix Level 2.0.j Changes: 40. [OS/2] Since there's no .. entry in the root of a FAT drive, cd .. there wouldn't work. Instead, the C shell would try cd'ing to one of the CDPATH directories. It now does the right thing. Fix Level 2.0.k Changes: 41. [OS/2] The change to markexe at 2.0.i broke it, causing markexe to garble the .exe header. It now works as it should. Fix Level 2.0.L Changes: 42. [NT] Complete rebuild of everything for the October Beta version of NT. 43. [NT] Background children are now protected from ^C in a console window using the new CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP option to the CreateProcess api. Also, the kill command now uses, by default, the new GenerateConsole- CtrlEvent api call to send a ^Break to a child. The advantage is that if the child is willing to accept it, links to any DLL's are closed properly. 44. [NT] Support for the new shutdown and logoff signal events has been added, allowing copies of the C shell to automatically exit when shutdown or logoff is selected from the Program Manager. 45. [NT] Support for the new LocalTime notion has been added to the date and ls utilities. 46. Additional work has been done on all the utilities and the shell in particular to prepare for a full 32-bit OS/2 2.0 release from one common source base. 47. [NT] The -s option to fgrep and grep didn't work. It does now. 48. [OS/2] A number of bad semaphore races were inadvertently introduced when support for NT was added at release 2.0. Apparently, they never caused problems (none were ever reported) but, in any event, they are fixed now. Fix Level 2.0.m Changes: 49. [NT] The built-in sleep command no longer forgets to close its open thread handle. Previously, after running sleep roughly 5000 times, it'd fail, claiming it couldn't start a new thread. 50. [NT] The -i (interactive) option for mv, cp and rm now works. 51. [NT] Minor changes were made to the shell to prepare it for the DEC Alpha version of NT. 52. [NT] Support for LocalTime has been added to the touch utility. 53. [NT] The NTVersion (NT Build number) and WinVersion built-in variables have been added and used in the ver.csh script. 54. A new -u (unbuffered) option has been added to the C shell to allow it to be used over a communications line. 55. First release of a demo version of the shell and all its utilities. Fix Level 2.0.n Changes: 56. [NT] Split was broken. It works now. Fix Level 2.0.o Changes: 57. [NT] If an ordinary foreground child process was started, wait would not work; it'd think the child never completed. It works now. 58. [NT] ^C now properly kills nested C shell scripts. Previously, ^C only worked if it happened to come in while the top-most level was running. 59. [NT] The shell could trap in certain situations, usually involving labels. For example, the one-line script, "foo: echo hello", would trap. It works now. 60. [NT] If the current directory on the current drive was changed in a script or other thread, the shell wouldn't properly set it back for child processes created from other threads. That's been fixed. 61. The w option to a search/replace operation in sed was broken. It's now working. 62. [NT] The w command to sed didn't know how to open a file that didn't already exist. It does now. 63. [NT/MIPS] The search/replace command to sed often failed due to datatype misalignment in the compiled sed script. That's been fixed. 64. [NT] The shell now issues an error message if an attempt is made to pass a command line longer than 32,282 characters (the limit for the NT CreateProcess call) to a child. 65. The fullpath function now knows not to let .. segments back up over the system or resource names in a UNC (network) name. Also, the driveno function now reports an error if its argument has an invalid drive specification or is a UNC name. 66. The shell now runs logout.csh scripts properly. A primordial bug caused it to issue a prompt if it found a logout.csh script (it shouldn't have) and run just the first statement. 67. [NT] Erroneous statements like "cat >" (i/o redirection with no filename following) no longer cause the shell to crash. (Actually, this bug has been in the OS/2 version all along also but just didn't happen to cause problems.) 68. [NT] File sharing or other errors that prevented a file from being copied are now reported by cp and mv. Previously, the copy would fail, but there'd be no warning. Fix Level 2.0.p Changes: 69. Rerunning a statement that set any of the colors variables to a literal (e.g., "for i = 1 to 10 do setenv COLORS = black on white; end") used to cause a trap. It works now. 70. Escape characters in a substitution containing command or variable substitutions that were edited to produce more than one word were not correctly processed. E.g., echo "echo a b:s/a/A/^"" produced: A b^" It should have produced (as it does now): A b" 71. A long-standing, but only recently reported bug that could cause traps and assert failures doing a cd +c to a subdirectory on another drive has been found and corrected. 72. unset'ing or unsetenv'ing a non-existent variable is no longer treated as an error. 73. [NT/Alpha] First release with support for the DEC Alpha processor. 74. [OS/2 2.0] First build with complete, working, debugged support for use of 32-bit code and the 32-bit API's under OS/2 2.0. 75. [NT] The SHELL variable, if wasn't already defined in the inherited environment, would be set to the pathname of the C shell, but with the last character dropped. This has been fixed. 76. ls.exe now accepts a -q (quiet) option, telling ls not to complain about non-existent files. Also, it's more consistent when it does complain. (Previously, it would not complain if it was asked to look for an "impossible" name, e.g., a long filename on a FAT drive.) ls also now looks for an LSOPTIONS environmental variable. 77. sed will now ignore Ctrl-Z characters between statements in a script. This change lets it process scripts created with editors that insist on pasting a Ctrl-Z (EOF) character onto the end of the files they produce. 78. [NT] The help alias has been deleted from startup.csh. It really applied only to OS/2. 79. [NT] The cl.csh (compile and link) and makecpgm.csh (make all the C programs) scripts have been added to the samples directory along with a sample skip file containing fragments of lines that should be skipped in the compiler/linker output. Fix Level 2.0.q Changes: 80. [NT & OS/2 2.0] A very minor performance improvement was made, eliminating some unnecessary checks for stack overflow. (The check was superfluous because under NT and 2.0, the system grows the stack automatically as needed anyway.) 81. The popup that appears if an internal assertion fails in the C shell now goes away, showing what was underneath it, when you press a keystroke. Fix Level 2.0.r Changes: 82. Minor fixups were done to the C shell, patchlnk, dskread, dskwrite, markexe and setrows to allow demo versions to be built for OS/2. 83. The cookie passed to demo versions of the utilities now expires more slowly. Previously, the cookie expired too fast to allow the utilities demos to be run reliably from a CD-ROM. 84. [NT] A typo in the kill -h help screen was corrected. 85. [NT/x86] A compiler optimization bug in rm, mv, and cp that affected recursive operations against directories has been fixed by turning off certain optimizations where the problem occurred. 86. [NT] pwd now exits with a correct return code of 0 if it's successful. Also, it now reports an error if asked for the current directory on an invalid drive. Fix Level 2.0.s Changes: 87. [NT] ps was incorrectly reporting running threads as zombies and zombies (threads that had ended but which hadn't been cleaned up yet) as running. That's been fixed. Fix Level 2.0.t Changes: 88. [NT] touch didn't properly recognize 4-digit year numbers. It does now. 89. [NT] ls and pwd didn't properly interpret the MIXEDCASEDRIVES variable (off-by-one error). Also, the shell and pwd didn't show current directories in the right case on mixed case drives. 90. [NT] The cl.csh script in samples directory didn't work properly with the DEC Alpha compiler; it does now. Also, it's been enhanced to look for the skip file in the same directory with the cl.csh script. 91. [NT] If a child of the C shell changed the console mode (e.g., disabling processed input, thus turning off Ctrl-C processing) but didn't reset things before exiting, it could affect the shell. That's been fixed; now the C shell resets the console mode every time it prompts for a new command from the keyboard. Fix Level 2.0.u Changes: 92. [NT] The C shell now ensures that the drive letters passed to the NT kernel for the current directories are always upper case. Lower case drive letters have been found to be a problem when spawning POSIX children. Fix Level 2.0.v Changes: 93. The C shell now supports command and variable substitution in <<-style inline i/o ("here" documents). Quoting (with single, double or back quotes) or escaping any part of the word immediately following the << operator suppresses the substitutions. 94. Error reporting is now substantially improved. Messages will now show the line number of the statement that failed, not where it was called from even if it was inside a user-defined procedure. Also, by default, the shell will print out a complete trace of the call stack showing arguments passed to procedures, scripts, eval statements, etc., all the way down the stack. (To suppress call stack dumps, invoke the C shell with the new -t option.) 95. A new mode that provides more strict compatibility with the original BSD C shell has been added. Triggered by trying to run a script that starts with #!/bin/csh or if the shell is invoked with the new -B option, the C shell will attempt to process statements in a more fully Berkeley-compatible fashion. (Scripts that do not start with #!/bin/csh will still be processed according to Hamilton C shell rules, even if the -B option is used to request Berkeley compatibility interactively.) In BSD compatibility mode: a. The status variable will reflect the return code from the rightmost stage of a pipeline. The tailstatus variable will be ignored. b. All the shell variables will be snapshotted and all new variables made local to the thread. c. Berkeley-stylevar[...] indexing notation will be used, where the indexing is by word selection operators (like the :-editing operators) rather than by expression. d. All variable arrays (except argv) will start with element 1. Accessing element 0 will give a null. e. $0 or$argv[0] will be the scriptname. $argv will be the rest of the argument vector. The bsdargv variable will be ignored. f. The # character will not need to be followed by white space to be considered the start of a comment. g. The patterns in a case test (inside a switch) will be strings and need not be quoted, rather than arbitrary expressions. Also, the switch value is evaluated as a wordlist which may contain variable or command substitutions and wildcards and then rendered as a string. h. endif and endsw will be predefined aliases for end (but only when closing an if or switch, respectively). breaksw will be a pre-defined alias for break. i. "set foo" and "setenv foo" will set foo to a null string, not dump its value. j. / and /= will perform integer division. k. The right operand of the =~ and !~ pattern matching operators will be taken as a word which may contain wildcards. l. In an expression, a variable must be preceded by$. If it doesn't, it'll be taken as a literal string. The changes should allow most scripts to run without problems. However, there will still be a few differences: a. The escape character will still be controlled by the escapesym variable (shared across all threads), which defaults to ^, not \. b. Environmental variables will still be shared. Changing them in a script will change them as seen by the parent. c. The special meaning of several break statements on one line will not be supported. d. unset and unsetenv still do not accept patterns. e. The following commands are not supported: bg, exec, fg, glob, jobs, limit, nice (but eval gives similar functionality), nohup, notify, stop, suspend, unlimit and %job. f. History references inside alias definitions will still not be supported. g. The (...) construct will isolate only the current directory, not all variables and other state information. 96. Running a statement in the background using the & flag at the end of the line will cause a new "job ID" number rather than a thread ID to be printed. Any threads, processes or screens spawned by that thread will inherit that same job ID. The job ID can be passed to the kill command to kill everything associated with that background job. Also, the ps command has been enhanced to show job ID numbers. 97. $* is now supported as an alias for$argv. Fix Level 2.0.w Changes: 98. A number of minor problems associated with supporting substitutions inside <<-style inline i/o documents were fixed: a) If there was a syntax error, the prompt would not be properly reset to prompt1. b) Single and double quotes should have been treated as ordinary characters in inline i/o. (To quote something, only the escape character can be used.) c) Any line containing a substitution caused a blank line to be added to the history list. d) If a substitution was at the end of a line, an extra space was erroneously added. 99. [NT] The sleep command left a thread entry lying around in the threads list after it had already exited. It's now properly cleaned up. 100. Filename completion with ^F did not quote special characters if there was only a partial match. It does now. 101. Doing a "sed '#'" caused a segment fault. It now works. Fix Level 2.0.x Changes: 102. [NT] rm didn't work on read-only directories even with -f or -x. It does now. 103. The more -t option for setting tabstops from the command line didn't work. It does now. 104. diff, uniq, cut, fgrep, grep and sed shared a common i/o buffering routine that had a bug that could cause them to crash or produce erroneous results on files with line ends other than \r\n. That's been fixed. Fix Level 2.0.y Changes: 105. There was a bug in the Berkeley compatibility mode introduced at 2.0.v that would cause the shell to hang if a #!/bin/csh script that contained any set statements was run more than once. That's been fixed. Fix Level 2.0.z Changes: 106. Calling the abs() built-in function without an argument caused the shell to crash. It now gives an error message as it should. Fix Level 2.0.27 Changes: 107. The changes made at 2.0.v to provide call stack dumps caused line numbers not to be shown in parser error messages when compiling scripts. That's been fixed. 108. The -I, +I, -O and +O command line options have been added to the C shell to allow insert mode to be customized. Type "csh -h" for more info. 109. [NT] mv didn't properly move read-only files across disk partitions. It'd make a copy, then complain it didn't have proper access. It works now. Fix Level 2.1 Changes: 110. [NT] First complete rebuild for the March beta. 111. [NT] tar now knows that NT keeps track of timezone information. The TZ variable and the -g and -G options are no longer used. 112. [NT] The shell is dramatically faster, especially at inserting into long command lines and compiling scripts on the DEC Alpha and MIPS R4x00. 113. The -b option has been added to the C shell to turn off Berkeley mode even on scripts that start with #!/bin/csh. 114. Error messages from the C shell should now all be properly displaying line numbers where appropriate. 115. A bug that potentially could have (but was never reported to have) caused the shell's unproc and unalias commands to crash was fixed. 116. [NT] The cl.csh script in the samples directory has been updated for the March NT beta and now knows about the hybrid compilers on the MIPS and Alpha machines. Use -old to get the old compilers. 117. [NT] hlabel.exe can now set the label on a volume. (There was no Win32 API to support this under the October Beta.) 118. [NT] The C shell -Z option now works. (Previously, it was ignored under NT because there was no support for it under the October Beta Win32.) 119. [NT] The rm.exe command has been renamed hrm.exe and an "alias rm hrm" command added to the default startup.csh script to avoid conflicts with the brain-dead Microsoft rm.exe command supplied with the NT SDK. 120. [OS/2 2.0] Inexplicably, DOS VDM applications were being started in invisible windows. Accessing them required typing Ctrl-Esc. They're now properly started in visible windows. Fix Level 2.1.a Changes: 121. [NT] Touch, mv, cp and tar now know how to set the timestamps on directories. 122. csh -XC now looks for a command immediately following the "C". It no longer tries to parse any remaining characters in that word as option characters and no longer requires the command to start in the next word. Fix Level 2.1.b Changes: 123. [NT] Hlabel would only change the label on the current drive. It works properly now. 124. The C shell didn't properly handle $i[$j] and $i[$k[^]] references in Berkeley compatibility mode. That's been fixed. 125. Set variables weren't always inherited by child threads in Berkeley mode. For example, % set i = 1; echo echo $i didn't work. It does now. Fix Level 2.1.c Changes: 126. In Berkeley mode, double quoted substitutions involving$0 could fail. E.g., % echo "$0 a" caused the shell to crash. It works now. 127. The Berkeley C shell would accept case clauses that didn't have colons following the test and those with quotes around the pattern. This wasn't the documented behavior but some users did write scripts that depended on it so Hamilton C shell now allows that also in Berkeley mode. 128. for i = 1 to 1 by -1; echo$i; end would loop through 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, etc., rather than exiting after the first iteration. That's fixed now. Fix Level 2.1.d Changes: 129. [NT] Trying to set path[i] garbled the global variables lock. That statement would appear to work, but, e.g., trying then to do a setenv would hang and eventually crash. That's been fixed. 130. In Berkeley mode, other indexed variable references such as @ i[$j]++ didn't index properly. They do now. 131. [NT] The cl.csh script in the samples directory didn't properly work with -O options. It does now. Fix Level 2.1.e Changes: 132. [NT] The dskwrite and dskread utilities have (finally!) been added. 133. [NT/x86] Tar no longer fails when it tries watching for binary files and automatically turning off \n to \r\n conversions. (This was actually a bug in all versions of tar; for some reason, it just didn't manifest itself except in the NT/x86 version.) Fix Level 2.1.f Changes: 134. [NT] A bug in NT's DOS subsystem caused DOS apps started from the C shell to think they were running in the wrong current directory. E.g., 1 C% cd \tmp 2 C% dosapp 3 C% cd .. 4 C% dosapp <-- Still thought it was in \tmp This build contains a workaround for the problem. 135. In Berkeley compatibility mode, the C shell no longer tokenizes # separately to recognize comments. Thus, where previously echo echo '#r' produced "# r", it now properly produces "#r". Fix Level 2.1.g Changes: 136. dskread and dskwrite didn't properly handle missing ordinates, e.g., (35,,) or ranges that weren't closed, e.g., (50,0,0)-. It works now. 137. [NT] dskwrite didn't work at all writing an entire disk. It does now. 138. [NT] ls no longer generates a spurious "'*.*' does not exist" message when listing a blank formatted diskette. Also, it now does give a message when listing an unformatted diskette. Fix Level 2.1.h Changes: 139. Changes made to support stack tracing caused the shell to crash if the prompt was set to something involving command substitution. That's fixed. 140. In certain cases, the diagnostics would indicate an error at line 1 when it should have said something else. That's been fixed. 141. The C shell's -I option didn't work. It does now. 142. [NT/Alpha] Expressions such as i += 1, where i is an integer, were incorrectly producing a floating point result due to a compiler optimization error. In this build, optimization has been turned off for the relevant module to ensure correct results. 143. [NT/Alpha] du didn't correctly report the total space on a drive. This build contains a workaround. 144. [NT] dskwrite -F crashed. It works now. 145. [NT/Alpha] dskread and dskwrite would frequently fail, complaining they couldn't read the drive parameters, if the diskette drive had not previously been accessed. Rerunning dskread or dskwrite would work. This has been traced to a bug in the Alpha/NT system; the current build contains a workaround to ensure correct results. 146. [NT] It's now possible to redirect stdout to a device such as \\.\a: or \\.\tape0. Fix Level 2.1.i Changes: 147. tar complained about archives created on UNIX SVR4. The SVR4 tar writes all octal fields in the header as null-terminated strings, contrary to spec as defined in the BSD 4.3 Programmer's Manual which says that many of the fields should be terminated with space + null and others not terminated at all. Hamilton tar now knows to accept this variant format without complaint. Also, when tar extracts files, it now sets the archive bit on the newly-extracted files. 148. mv and cp now retain the case of any filenames they move. Previously, if one typed "mv foo ..", the resulting file would be in whatever case was typed, not what it had been stored as previously. 149. [NT/Alpha] Expressions like 2**10 resulted in floating point results (albeit correct ones) when they should have produced integer results. This build contains a workaround. 150. [NT] winerror.c and winerror.exe were added to the samples directory and the help proc definition were added to startup.csh. This gives a convenient means of getting the Win32 error message corresponding to a return code. 151. [NT] The source command should have tried pasting a .csh extension onto the filename if the name as specified didn't exist. It does now. 152. Command substitution now processes certain unquoted escape sequences in the backquoted string before parsing it. This ensures, e.g., that the following will work, producing "1 2 3 4 5": echo for i = 1 to 5 do ^ echo$i ^ end 153. If callstack reporting was turned off with csh -t, there was a possibility (never reported) that the shell could crash following stack pops. That's been fixed. 154. The shell now generates callstack reports for scripts read with the source command and now reports the correct linenumber if a syntax error is encountered inside the sourced script. 155. [NT/Alpha] strings was broken due to a bug in the Alpha compiler. This build contains a workaround. 156. [NT] International keyboard keying conventions (e.g., ALT + 8 to create the "[" character on a German keyboard) should now be working. This change affects the C shell, mv, cp, rm, more and des. Fix Level 2.1.j Changes: 157. [NT/x86] diff had two problems with binary files: a bug in the code that automatically detected binary data could cause diff to crash. Also, a compiler optimization bug caused diff to claim there were differences in binary files that were in reality exactly the same. This build fixes both those problems. Fix Level 2.1.k Changes: 158. [NT] The change made at 2.1.i for international keyboards ended up breaking support for Ctrl + other keys such as Enter or [. That's now fixed, affecting the C shell, mv, cp, rm, more and des. 159. Startup.csh changed to show how users might customize it to have operands to dir wildcarded by the C shell or by cmd.exe itself. 160. [NT] The cl.csh script in the samples directory now accepts the CPU variable values typed in mixed case. 161. [NT] The C shell no longer hangs if you attempt to kill a child Win3.x app and then do a ps. (But you still can't kill the Win3.x children, apparently due to a bug in NT.) 162. [NT] The C shell now places =X:-style current directory variables into the environment for all valid drives at startup, even for drives for which the current directory is the root. This is to work around an apparent problem in the VDMs under NT on the RISC machines. Fix Level 2.1.L Changes: 163. The changes made to support the -B (Berkeley compatibility) option broke the use of the bsdargv variable and could cause the shell to crash. bsdargv is more-or-less obsolete now, but it certainly shouldn't cause a crash; it's been fixed in this build. 164. The startup.csh file has been fixed so that the alias/proc mechanisms used to intercept copy, xcopy, etc., will still work if the shell is invoked with -B. (The problem was with the @ s = nowild statements in the aliases. In Berkeley mode, a $was needed to make a valid expression.) Fix Level 2.1.m Changes: 165. The changes made to support the -B (Berkeley compatibility) option introduced a bug in indexed variable evaluations done in the prompt1 and prompt2 variables. Also, some never reported but latent bugs in iterated statements containing indexed variable references were fixed. Fix Level 2.1.n Changes: 166. Yet another UNIX tar was discovered that formatted octal fields in the headers slightly differently than the spec required, causing our tar to reject the file. This release contains a fix to cause tar to accept virtually anything that looks like a plausible octal number. 167. Filename expansion now knows to quote or escape any { or } characters in any files it matches. Fix Level 2.1.o Changes: 168. [NT] The C shell now knows to ignore nonsensical Ctrl- combinations. Previously, these keystrokes could cause the C shell to get confused about the cursor position. 169. [NT/Alpha] Problems with expressions for which workarounds were added at 2.1.h and 2.1.i have finally been tracked down to a legitimate coding bug in the long precision math routines for the Alpha. It's corrected in this build. Fix Level 2.1.p Changes: 170. sed no longer allows "." to match either CarriageReturn or NewLine. This ensures that echo abc | sed 's/./& /g' sensibly produces "a b c \r\n", not "a b c \r \n ". 171. Typing a few characters onto the command line, pressing Escape and then End caused the C shell to put the cursor in the leftmost column in the window rather than, as it should have, in the column following the prompt. That's been fixed. 172. [NT] The cl.csh script now knows how to handle C++ files with .cpp or .cxx extensions, resources in .rc, .res or .rbj files, and create either console (default or -console) or graphical (-GUI) applications. 173. [NT/x86] The args.exe, dumpenv.exe, myecho.exe and rcode.exe files in the samples directory had never been rebuilt since the October beta. They worked on the March beta but not the later builds. They have now been rebuilt. Fix Level 2.1.q Changes: 174. [OS/2] The startwin.exe utility has been added. This is a tiny PM program that can be used to start Win3.x apps seamlessly on the desktop under OS/2 2.x. It's automatically invoked by the C shell if you type the name of a Win3.x app when running under OS/2 2.x. For more info, type "startwin -h". 175. The C shell now intercepts the situation where a PM child under OS/2 or a non-console app under NT is being run and stdout or stderr is tied to the C shell's console window. Since console handles aren't inheritable in these cases, the C shell will instead pass a handle to the input end of a pipe and start a new background thread to copy anything written into that pipe onto the screen. This lets ordinary printf's be used in PM or Win32 GUI apps without losing the output. 176. In Berkeley mode, the C shell no longer does any history expansion inside comments. Fix Level 2.2 Changes: 177. [NT] A complete rebuild of the whole product on the release versions of NT on all three platforms. 178. [OS/2] If a child process ended with a hard error or a trap, the C shell didn't dump out the call stack. It does now. 179. The C shell no longer routinely translates the PATH directory names to lower case. 180. Processing of special characters inside single- or double-quoted strings has been improved slightly. It's now possible to type, e.g., set prompt1 = '$ansi("bright yellow")$cwd ' 181. ls.exe now gives an error message if a UNC name it's given doesn't exist. Previously, the message was generated only for non-existent local names. 182. [NT] cl.csh in the samples directory has been updated for the final release of NT, which does not use an ntdll.lib. It now accepts -O... optimization options which override the defaults. When it finds a skip file, it sets the shell variable, skip, to the full pathname; that allows the ferr alias to work even if cl is called first from its own directory and later from another directory. Also, cl knows that in the final release for the Alpha, acc can (finally!) use the INCLUDE environment variable; it's no longer necessary to break it up into a series of -I options. Finally, the _MT symbol is now defined. 183. [NT] cp now knows how to set the timestamps on any read-only directories it copies. 184. head, tail and tabs had a bug that caused the [ in an ANSI escape sequence to be turned into two ['s if it fell on a buffer boundary when expanding tabs. 185. The demo.exe supplied with the demo version of the C shell no longer uses the existing HOME variable even if it's defined. That was causing problems when HOME pointed to something with different/missing login.csh or startup.csh files. Also, under NT, it now registers a signal handler so it won't exit before its child has exited. 186. It's now possible to wildcard drive letters. E.g., ls *:\*\bin now works. If an * or ? is specified for the drive letter wildcard, then the set specified by the DRIVEMASK environmental variable is used. If DRIVEMASK has not been set, the drives c: through z: (as may exist) are searched. To search drives a: and b:, which are usually floppies, you must specify them explicitly, e.g., [a-z]:\*\bin. Also, if the path is on one of the MIXEDCASEDRIVES, the entire resulting path will be in the correct case. 187. fullpath now puts the resulting pathname into the actual case stored in the filesystem if the the path is on one of the MIXEDCASEDRIVES. Otherwise, it puts the result into all lower case. 188. ls wouldn't report anything on a UNC drive if invoked with the current drive was one of the MIXEDCASEDRIVES. It works now. Also, MIXEDCASEDRIVES can now accept a list of UNC servers and/or drives following the range of drive letters. For example: setenv MIXEDCASEDRIVES = d-f,\\alpha\drive-c,\\beta means that drives d: through f:, drive-c on \\alpha, and all drives on \\beta are mixed case. \\ without a machine name means all UNC names should be reported in mixed case. Individual list items should be separated by commas, semicolons or white space. 189. du now complains if you ask for it to report on something other than a: through z:. 190. cp and mv no longer attempt to set the timestamp of an existing directory when merging in another directory (e.g., in doing "mv a: ."). 191. [NT] cp and mv no longer give a bogus message about not being able to query path info about the root directories on diskettes. 192. [OS/2] newer and older failed to compare the seconds component if two timestamps matched down to the minutes. That's fixed. 193. The cron utility has been added. For help, type "cron -h". 194. The -Y option to suppress the installation of an interrupt handler has been added to the C shell. Under NT, this option is ignored. 195. fgrep -x didn't match lines that didn't happen to cross buffer boundaries. It should now work in all cases. Also, a minor change in the interface to internal get_line routine was made in fgrep, grep, and cut. 196. The C shell now accepts empty statement lists in an if/then/else, following a default: case in a switch statement or in (...) or {...} groups for better compatibility with the Berkeley C shell. 197. more didn't properly truncate the filename in the prompt at the bottom of the window if the filename was too long. Under NT, that caused it to fail completely. Under OS/2, it ran, but it couldn't display command keystrokes. All that's fixed. 198. [NT] If dskread/dskwrite is unable to open a drive because of a sharing violation, it waits 3 seconds and tries again. This is to allow any writes in the system buffers to get flushed to the drive. Fix Level 2.2.a Changes: 199. [NT] The mt (mag tape) utility has been added. Type "mt -h" for help. 200. Tar now ensures that it never writes blocks of less than 512 bytes at a time. That was important for writing to the tape device under NT. 201. [NT] dskread and dskwrite will now sleep up 7 seconds in 100 millisecond increments, waiting for a slow diskette to free up rather than a flat, all-or-nothing 3 seconds. Fix Level 2.2.b Changes: 202. [NT] Changes (mostly just to the makefiles) to support a port to another unannounced RISC processor running Windows NT. 203. [NT] strings -v didn't properly display the filenames associated with the strings it found. It works now. Fix Level 2.2.c Changes: 204. [NT] If the C shell was started with a title bar longer than 127 characters, it would crash. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.d Changes: 205. [NT] More minor changes for yet another port to an unannounced RISC processor running Windows NT. 206. [NT] mt.exe didn't format error messages properly. It does now. 207. [NT] touch.exe had an uninitialized variable that caused it to set timestamps off by a random number of milliseconds. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.e Changes: 208. Changes made at release 2.2 related to better support for mixed case drives created a bug in the fullpath built-in function which caused a number of problems on a mixed case drive: (a) fullpath("*.*") returned "c:\foo\." rather than "c:\foo\*.*", (c) under NT, fullpath opened a FindFirstFile directory handle that it would forget to close, making it impossible to delete the directory, (d) the shell would claim it couldn't find executable files in the current directory, (e) if nohashing was set to 2, then the shell wouldn't be able to delete any directory which had been a current directory at a time when any external program was run. All these (seemingly different) problems were the result of the same 2-line bug, now fixed. 209. Those same changes at 2.2 to support mixed case also involved turning all filenames to all lower case on non-mixed case drives in the fullpath function and in the filename editing functions (:b, :e, :f, :t). That caused problems for a large customer and has been backed out. 210. [NT] The C shell now uses _beginthread/_endthread to start or exit any threads it creates instead of calling CreateThread directly. Microsoft has advised that the C run-time library (including even basic functions like malloc) may cause memory leaks if _beginthread isn't used. 211. [NT/Risc machines] tr -s (squeeze option) didn't work. It does now. 212. [NT] A bug in the common display routines caused ANSI escape sequences to be parsed incorrectly if the escape sequence was broken across a buffer boundary. The failure was a very rare event, but it could affect lots of utilities. It's fixed in this build. 213. [NT] xd -w didn't work properly. It does now. 214. A set of sed scripts have been added to the samples directory for converting Bourne/Korn shell scripts into C shell scripts. Customers have reported these sed scripts eliminate about 85% of the work of converting shell scripts. Fix Level 2.2.f Changes: 215. Statements joined with the && conditional execution operator were viewed as having failed with an error (causing loops to exit, etc.) if the leftpart returned a non-zero return code. It should not have been an error and is now fixed. Fix Level 2.2.g Changes: 216. If there were any command or variable substitutions inside a <<-style "here document", the line number was incorrectly incremented a second time. That's been fixed. 217. Cron has been enhanced to treat blank lines and lines beginning with # as comments. It also now give a warning if the values specified in any particular field are not monotonically increasing (to help catch mistakes forgetting to use 24-hour times). Finally, a bug in the parsing of the day/date specification fields has been fixed. 218. The C shell has been enhanced to support use of Tab and Shift-Tab for file completion. Repeatedly pressing Tab gives the first and following matches, one at a time. Shift-Tab starts at the end and works backward. To disable Tab completion, start the C shell with the -T option. (You may wish to use the CSHOPTIONS variable to do this.) 219. Heapstat figures could become garbled if filename completion was used and it resulted in a large number matches. That's corrected. 220. A dollar sign that's not followed by a valid variable reference is now treated as literal text rather than as an error. That makes it more convenient, e.g., to type UNC names such as \\alpha\d$; it's no longer necessary to remember to escape the $. 221. A bug in processing of the MixedCaseDrives variable has been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.h Changes: 222. The Tab completion introduced at 2.2.g had a few bugs: If there were no matches found, the shell crashed. The original wildcard string was garbled if one tabbed all the way through the ring back to the original wildcard. There were some minor memory leaks. Finally, the help information was wrong: -T _disables_ tab completion. These problems have all been fixed. 223. [NT] The blksize utility has been added to the samples directory. It can be useful for reading/writing tape devices that support only certain blocksizes. 224. [NT] Under certain cases, cp would fail to recognize attempts to copy a file over the top of itself and would actually try to do the copy, causing the file contents to be lost. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.i Changes: 225. More work on tab completion: when tab completion is enabled, a plain tab can be typed as Ctrl-Tab. When -T is specified, tab completion is now still available, but as Ctrl-Tab and Shift-Tab. Also, if the original wildcard contained { or }, cycling back to it didn't work right: the { and } characters were escaped; they should have been left alone. That's fixed. 226. Aliases now support arguments using the history reference-style syntax used by the Berkeley C shell. If there are no references, any arguments are simply pasted on the end of the expansion as before. For example: 1 D% alias test echo ^!^* world 2 D% alias test test echo !* world 3 D% test hello hello world 4 D% alias test echo hello 5 D% test world hello world 227. Long-form history references now properly support braces around the argument. E.g., "!{!}" is the same as "!!". 228. [NT] "mt -v status" now continues dumping the tape device status even if it cannot determine the block number at which the device is positioned. Also, some of the status information was garbled; it's now correct. 229. Editing operators may now be used inside the curly braces in a variable reference, e.g.,${cwd:h}. Also, any number of braces may be nested around a variable substitution. 230. A memory leak when aliases were unaliased has been fixed. 231. The member.csh script has been added to the samples directory. 232. (...) statement groups and {...} expressions weren't being evaluated correctly. The status code was being discarded. (That made {...} expressions pretty useless.) That's fixed now. Also, {...} expressions no longer push & pop the directory stack on entry and exit. Fix Level 2.2.j Changes: 233. Wildcarding and filename completion didn't work with MixedCaseDrives set if the pattern contained a ".." or "." level. That's fixed. 234. Doing Shift-Tab, then Tab skipped over the step of reposting the original wildcard string. That's fixed. 235. The -Z option has been added to rm.exe (hrm.exe under NT) to allow a file to be completely overwritten with binary zeros before deletion, thus guaranteeing that no one can "undelete" the file later. 236. [NT] The change made to cp at 2.2.h was too conservative and caused it to refuse to do some copies that were legitimate, e.g., "cp foo\bar .". That now works. 237. tar has been dramatically improved. Over 30% more code was added, to provide these new features and improvements: a) It now is able to read/write CPIO ascii and binary files and to automatically recognize them when it encounters them. b) It now knows how to do \r\n -> \n conversions to an archive even when it's writing the archive to a pipe or a tape device where seeking back to the header to fixup the size field is impossible. (It now uses a prescan of the data if seeking is not going to be possible.) c) A new -ff variation on the fullpath option causes tar to write the entire pathname specified on the command line (including any drive letter and colon) into the archive. This isn't really legal for restoration on a UNIX machine, but it does let you use tar to back up more than one drive at a time. d) If \'s were typed in filenames given on the command line, tar would not convert those to /'s in the archive. That caused problems for restoration on a UNIX machine. tar now converts all \'s to /'s. e) A lot of work was done to directly support tape drives under NT. Tape devices can now be opened as an archive file using the name \\.\tape0. It's now possible to specify a blocksize to be used in reading/writing the archive. Also, if tar discovers the archive is on a tape device, tar will try to ensure that it's using a blocksize that's compatible with the drive and that the drive has been properly initialized. f) The -v (verbose) option now causes tar to report the format (TAR vs. CPIO binary vs. CPIO ASCII) and byte sex was used in the archive. g) The -b (bytesex) option didn't work. It does now. h) If a file being added to an archive is on a drive listed in the MixedCaseDrives environment variable, the filename will be stored into the archive in mixed case. 238. uniq -u didn't report the last line if it was unique. It does now. 239. Null argument words weren't being passed to child processes started from the C shell. E.g., 1 C% myecho hello "" world 'myecho' 'hello' 'world' arg length = 19 characters. It should have (and now, does) produce: 'myecho' 'hello' '' 'world' arg length = 20 characters. 240. The sample startup.csh has been modified so that it can be re-invoked by the same copy of the C shell without causing the layer number to be incremented. 241. [Demo versions] The maximum number of commands that can be typed before the demo exits, forcing the user to start a new copy has been raised from 5 commands to 10 commands. Fix Level 2.2.k Changes: 242. If certain wildcarding situations with MixedCaseDrives, the shell would forget to close a directory handle, making it impossible to delete the directory without exiting the shell. That's fixed. 243. More work on cp to avoid problems copying files on top of themselves, this time treating the case "cp x d:" where x is on d:. Fix Level 2.2.L Changes: 244. Corrected minor typos in the tar help screens. 245. [NT] Minor support work for unannounced RISC platforms. 246. [NT] A new, more standard makefile has replaced the old samples.mak in the samples directory. Fix Level 2.2.m Changes: 247. A bug in the goto statement implementation that could cause access violations in the C shell was fixed. 248. Minor typos in the tar help screens were fixed. Fix Level 2.2.n Changes: 249. Incrementing or decrementing an indexed built-in variable (e.g., processid[1]++) actually changed argv, not the intended variable. That's fixed. 250. The new tar was incorrectly writing directory names as if the -f option was specified, even if it wasn't. Files themselves were added correctly. Now, both should be right. Also, when listing the contents of a tar archive, tar printed the trailing / following directory names, just as they appeared in the archive. That trailing / is no longer shown, making the output a little more like that of ls. 251. [NT] Trying to move a directory from one partition to another would fail with a sharing violation, claiming the directory was in use by another process, if the directory contained subdirectories. That's fixed. 252. If MixedCaseDrives was used, wildcards like ..\..\* would fail if used more than 2 levels down from the root. That's fixed. 253. Ctrl-C interrupt handling has been improved. Interrupts now bubble up better from interrupted child processes and threads to the threads that created them. 254. The C shell no longer arbitrarily sets its exit code to 1 when it should be 0. Fix Level 2.2.o Changes: 255. The new tar was properly reading cpio ASCII files, but wasn't writing them correctly. Support for cpio binary files just didn't work at all. Appends to either tar or cpio files also didn't work. All this should be working now. Fix Level 2.2.p Changes: 256. Environment variables could be properly set to zero words, but if a new child copy of the C shell was started, it'd parse the value it was passed as a single word consisting of the null string. That's fixed. 257. If ignoreerors was set to 2 (ignore everything), then continue, break, goto, exit, logout and return statements were treated as nops. That's fixed. 258. The -e (execute only, no logging to history) and -L (load history) options have been added to the source command. Also, the -n (no execute) option has been changed to do a syntax check, consistent with the -n option for the C shell itself. 259. If the C shell was started with the -n (no execute) option, exit didn't work. It does now. Fix Level 2.2.q Changes: 260. [NT] The mt -f option didn't work. It does now. 261. source -s could cause the shell to crash if it was trying to read from the keyboard. The bug could apparently (though never reported) also cause other failures. The problem is now fixed. 262. If the new argument notation was used in an alias, then word separator characters were incorrectly handled. Aliases such as the following didn't work, but should now: alias x (echo ^!^*; echo hello) Also, errors involving unpaired quotes in an alias expansion such as the following were overlooked. They're now caught. alias y echo "'" Fix Level 2.2.r Changes: 263. The demo version of cron were looking for csh.exe; they should have been looking for cshdemo.exe. 264. Minor work to support a demo version of the C shell that would expire at a future date. Fix Level 2.2.s Changes: 265. [NT] The work done at release 2.2.e to use _beginthread instead of CreateThread has been undone after it was discovered that the thread handle returned by _beginthread is unreliable. The C shell and all the utilities and samples now use the single-threaded CRTL, locking each use with a critical section. In general, things are now a bit smaller and a bit faster. 266. [NT] Everything has been recompiled on Daytona. It should, however, still be fully compatible with the released NT 3.1 build. 267. [NT] dskread and dskwrite now use paragraph-aligned (16-byte aligned) buffers for all I/O to the diskette. Something changed in Daytona, non-paragraph-aligned buffers used to work under NT 3.1, but stopped working on the MIPS under Daytona. 268. [NT] The blksize utility in the samples directory now uses a paragraph- aligned buffer. 269. Tar didn't work if you tried backing up a root directory. Under NT, it did nothing; under OS/2, it crashed. That's now fixed. 270. Sed now accepts escape sequences like \r and \n in search and replace expressions. Also, the help information for static text operations (a\, c\ and i\) has been made a bit more readable. 271. [NT] The cl.csh sample script has been updated for the Daytona beta. 272. [NT] The tape device always reports an error, ERROR_BUS_RESET, if GetTapeParameters is called immediately after a new tape has been inserted. Calling GetTapeParameters again gives useful information. The mt and tar utilities have been fixed to do that second attempt. 273. [NT] The eraseshort operation has been added to mt. 274. [NT] Some additional nuisance messages produced by the Daytona compilers have been added to the skip file in the samples directory. Fix Level 2.2.t Changes: 275. Expressions in an elif clause were evaluated in Hamilton C shell mode, even inside #!/bin/csh scripts, where clearly Berkeley rules should be used. That's been fixed. 276. [NT] Under Daytona (NT Release 3.5) or later, the C shell now starts child processes with error mode set to zero, just as cmd.exe does. The C shell itself uses a non-zero error mode to disable popups, allowing the shell to intercept any error conditions. That's important to allow unattended scripts to be run. But error mode was inheritable under NT 3.1 and it caused problems with some 3rd party apps that just assumed they'd be started with error mode = 0. Daytona has a new option to CreateProcess to allow apps running with a non-zero error mode to start children with a zero error mode. Fix Level 2.2.u Changes: 277. [NT] Changes made at 2.2.s to use CreateThread instead of _beginthread and GlobalAlloc instead of malloc introduced a bug into the C shell and cron: their use of GlobalReAlloc was flawed and caused any reallocations (e.g., if editing caused the command line to grow beyond 4 lines) to fail. 278. Dskwrite and cp, rm and mv can now diagnose more clearly those failures due to write-protected media. 279. cron now considers a Ctrl-Z character in a crontab as an end-of-file. Also, if any of first five fields is garbled, the message is better. 280. The line numbers in any messages resulting from a garbled command specified with -C or -c are now correct. A counter hadn't been re-initialized after login.csh and startup.csh were read. 281. Tar's verbose messages now mention the blocksize it's using. Fix Level 2.2.v Changes: 282. Support for escape sequences such as \r, added to sed at build 2.2.s, has been added to grep. Hex escape sequences, which didn't work right in sed, have been fixed and work properly in both sed and grep. 283. Sed and grep now accept span expressions using the \{n,m\} syntax. E.g., grep '10\{2,4\}1' will match 1001, 10001 and 100001, but not 101 or 1000001. 284. The rot13 alias (for decoding off-color jokes on Internet) has been added to startup.csh. 285. A number of improvements were made to tar: a) [NT] Tar would crash in its error message routine if it was asked to copy a file to the archive that was open for writing by another process. That's fixed. b) [NT] Tar now normally rewinds the tape device at the start and at the finish of the operation. This can be suppressed with the new -N (no rewind) option. c) Tar's messages about suppressing \r\n -> \n line end conversions on binary files now appear only if the -v (verbose) option is selected. d) If it encounters a file that can't be copied to the archive, tar now just gives a warning and continues; it used to give a message and just quit. e) The spurious messages about garbled headers are suppressed for empty tar files. f) [NT] Failed attempts to set the blocksize on a tape device are now treated as cause for a warning message, not a fatal error. 286. The sh_2_csh.csh script had some out-of-date references to an sh-2-csh subdirectory. Because the hyphen isn't a legal character on CD-ROM filesystem, that directory was renamed but the change wasn't made to the script. Now it's correct. 287. [NT] The how2tar.txt and how2tar.wri files were added to the distribution disks to explain how to get tar to work with a tape drive under NT. 288. The license.txt file was added to each of the .zip files on the demo disks. Fix Level 2.2.w Changes: 289. Dskwrite -FH didn't work at all under OS/2 and not on unformatted disks under NT (for different, unrelated reasons under the two systems). It works now. 290. Minor typos in the help screens for sed, grep, kill, and the C shell itself were corrected. 291. [NT] The how2tar.* files were omitted from the product versions of some 2.2.v disks. It should be on all of them now. Fix Level 2.2.x Changes: 292. [NT] A bad race that could hang the C shell on a multiprocessor system was fixed. 293. The mixedpath(...) function and the :m editing operator were added to allow the true mixed case filename stored in the filesystem to be retrieved. 294. The :h operator didn't work on a filename consisting of only a \. It does now. 295. Dskwrite -FH and -FL still had problems formatting some disks, depending on how they were previously formatted. Hopefully, all cases should now be covered. Also, a -E option was added for Extended Density formatting. 296. Additional work on tar: a) The help screen for tar now mentions that -b abcd is little-endian and -b badc is big-endian and that if the archive is intended to be read on a RISC or Motorola-based UNIX workstation, big-endian should be used. The -bB (Big-Endian) and -bL (Little-Endian) aliases for -b badc and -b abcd, respectively, have been added. Also, the -v (verbose) output now specifically identifies abcd and badc formats as Little-Endian and Big-Endian, respectively. b) [NT] The help screen for tar now mentions that you must manually specify a blocksize of 1024 or larger to make a DAT drive work. c) The -I option, allowing the list of files to added to/extracted from an archive to be specified in an include file on disk or via stdin, has been added. d) The -A option has been added, meaning reset the Archive bit on any files or directories copied to a tar or cpio archive file. (During extraction, -A is ignored and the Archive bit is always set.) e) The ReadOnly bit is now preserved properly. 297. The CSHTITLE environmental and cshtitle shell variables have been added, allowing control over the text in the title bar. They work like the PROMPTx and promptx variables and are recalculated whenever they're displayed. Unset'ing cshtitle causes "Hamilton C shell" to be used; set'ing cshtitle to a null string causes the title bar it inherited at entry to be used. 298. Setting prompt2 incorrectly set prompt1. It now correctly sets prompt2. 299. [NT] The ps command didn't report the thread id's correctly following the work done at 2.2.s to switch back to using CreateThread. ps now works properly. 300. [NT] References to environmental variables inside an expression were case-sensitive; they should have been case-INsensitive as they are now. 301. [NT] The kill command had an extraneous CloseHandle call that could have produced random results. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.y Changes: 302. The help screen for dskread now mentions that it also accepts the -E (extended density) option. 303. The help screen for tar now correctly specifies that when extracting files, the -A option is ignored and the Archive bit is always set. Also, a minor typo in the -I option description was fixed. Fix Level 2.2.z Changes: 304. A new -S (stop) option has been added to tar. Tar no longer stops if it can't extract a file or directory from an archive unless -S is specified. A spurious message about turning off \r\n to \n conversions when -vr is specified has been suppressed. A bug that caused tar to fail to extract a directory if one of the levels already existed. 305. When reading stdin, wc no longer pastes a spurious null character onto the end of its output. 306. [NT] The posxpath.csh script for converting ordinary filenames to POSIX format has been added to the samples directory. Fix Level 2.2.27 Changes: 307. [NT] Cron had a resource leak that's been fixed. It wasn't closing the thread handle returned by CreateProcess when it spawned a child. Fix Level 2.2.28 Changes: 308. [NT] Tar can now read tapes using a 512-byte blocksize. Inserting a new tape in the drive no longer causes spurious failures. Attempting to read a tape using the wrong blocksize now results in a message stating that fact. If there's no media in the drive, that also results in a specific message. 309. Tar's newline processing during extraction no longer inserts CarriageReturns just before any NewLines that are already preceded by CarriageReturns. 310. [NT] mt no longer produces spurious -v status results after a tape is changed. Also, it now produces a message if there's no tape in the drive. 311. [NT] cl.csh and ferr in the samples directory have been updated for the final release of Daytona (NT 3.5). 312. [NT] The C shell now recognizes when it's being run under Windows95 (Chicago) and knows that the DOS command prompt there is called command.com, not cmd.exe as it is under NT. 313. [NT\MIPS] The blksize.exe file was (inexplicably) empty in some previous builds. It now properly contains the actual executable. Fix Level 2.2.29 Changes: 314. [NT] Cron can now be run as a service, meaning that it can be set up to run under a different ID or even when no one is logged in. A new -W (window) option has been added to allow cron to start up in a new window. 315. Cron now has a -! option which causes it to install an interrupt handler so that ^C or ^Break doesn't cause cron to exit. 316. The C shell now writes double quotes around any words in the command line it passes to its child processes that contain wildcard characters. This made it possible to relink grep and sed with the Microsoft setargv.obj module so they can do wildcarding under cmd.exe. Also, setargv.obj is now linked in with xd.exe. (The fact it wasn't previously was just an oversight.) 317. Tar now supports C shell-style wildcarding of the list of files to be extracted from an archive. Wildcarding works on all entries in the include file (during both extraction and addition). A new -T (total) option has been added to total the sizes of all selected files. A new -D (dim) option has been added to cause highlighting NOT to be done on any output. New environment variables, TARBINARY and TARASCII, are now recognized. Each may contain a list (separated by white space) of wildcards that describe files which should be assumed to be binary or ascii, respectively, regardless of content. The -R option didn't work properly with -s; it does now. 318. The pattern match operators, =~ and !~, didn't properly handle the case of matches against strings that contained a drive letter and a colon. That's fixed now. 319. The unixprof (UNIX Profile) scripts have been added to the samples directory. When run against a source tree, it produces a listing of total number of calls to each of the various UNIX system and library routines. 320. The timestmp.csh and fixup.csh scripts have been added to the samples directory. 321. touch now accepts a timestamp that allows granularity down to the second. A new -2 option allows granularity in 2 second increments for compatibility with FAT and HPFS partitions. Fix Level 2.2.30 Changes: 322. A number of fixes were made to tar: a) The changes made at release 2.2.29 to tar introduced a bug that caused an access violation if tar was invoked without any arguments following the last option word. That's fixed. b) A long-standing bug, probably introduced at release 2.2.j, that caused problems in certain situations when reading through a pipe has been fixed. c) A long-standing bug in the heap code suddenly became apparent on Intel, totalling crippling tar, when we switched from the SDK compiler to VC++ on NT. The bug was on all platforms but just hadn't been visible before and is now fixed. x d) Specifying an incorrect bytesex caused tar to go into an infinite loop when reading an archive; that's fixed.. e) Tar now intercepts and ignores (except for a warning message) attempts to copy the archive file into itself. f) Another bug introduced at 2.2.29 caused the command line wildcarding against the filesystem to fail under cmd.exe. That's fixed. g) The TARBINARY and TARASCII environment variable routines had a bug which could cause a crash. That's fixed. 323. [NT] The demo version of cron now gives an error message and refuses to install itself as a service. (It can't run as a service since it must be a child of the demo version of the C shell.) Fix Level 2.2.31 Changes: 324. Tar now is much more picky about what files it will consider to be ASCII. Previously, if the first 2K bytes of a file was at least 2/3 ASCII, the whole file was considered ASCII. Now, tar insists that the first 8K cannot contain more than 8 binary characters and that, if it's shorter than that, not more than 1/64th of the file may be binary. Also, tar now highlights any files it converts in bright yellow, alerting the user to changes it's making. Fix Level 2.2.32 Changes: 325. A change made at release 2.2.29 to the wildcarding routines broke the posxpath.csh sample script and caused pattern matches against any drive letter to fail. That's fixed in both the shell and in tar. 326. Tar now recognized UNC names for extraction. 327. A buffering bug that affected cut, sed, fgrep, grep, uniq and diff has been fixed. This bug caused problems reading files that used only a \n, not a \r\n end-of-line convention. 328. [NT] Cron didn't work properly as a service installed in the default manner. Also, it wouldn't respond immediately to stop requests. These problems have been fixed. 329. The timestmp.csh sample script didn't properly handle leading zeros in minutes and seconds. Its does now. Fix Level 2.2.33 Changes: 330. The "fix" made to cut, sed, fgrep, grep, uniq and diff at 2.2.31 was worse than before, causing even worse buffering problems. This build should fix the fix. 331. The postage.csh script in the samples directory has been updated to reflect the new U.S. domestic postage rates that went into effect on January 1, 1995. 332. [NT] dskread and dskwrite produced spurious complaints about the boot record even when used with -x. That's fixed. 333. The changes made to tar at 2.2.29 caused it to skip over the first file specification on the command line if the -s option was used. That's fixed. Also, a new -w option, which causes all files being copied to the archive to be shared R/W, has been added. Fix Level 2.2.34 Changes: 334. Cut, sed, fgrep, grep, uniq and diff still had an occasional buffering problem when reading files with lines ending only in \n (UNIX-style), not \r\n (NT or OS/2-style). That's fixed. 335. [NT] cron would not start as a service if the C shell wasn't on the system (as distinct from the user's) search path. Beginning with this build, the install operation stores the C shell's search path into the registry entry describing the cron service. Fix Level 2.2.35 Changes: 336. [NT] cron would not start as a service if its home directory (set either explicitly or implicitly if no there was no setting for home) was the root of a FAT partition. Also, the interactive option wasn't being processed quite properly. That's fixed. 337. Uuencode and uudecode have been added. Also, the aliases uue and uud have been added to startup.csh. 338. The demo versions have been recompiled/relinked to update an old phone number embedded in them to our new phone number. 339. Sed had a bug in the \{...\} span logic that's been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.36 Changes: 340. [NT] The cl.csh script in the samples directory now pipes both stdout and stderr through ferr. 341. The comparison algorithm used by diff has been substantially improved to give a far more optimized comparison listing. Also, the -e option has been renamed -E, allowing a new POSIX-compatible -e option (which produces an ed script) to be added. A new -N option was added which causes differences in line-end conventions to be ignored. 342. Cut, sed, fgrep, grep, uniq, diff and uudecode now expect that lines will end with either \r\n (OS/2 or NT-style) or \n (UNIX style) but not \n\r (reversed). Trying to accept the reversed combination caused these line-oriented utilities to disagree with more over what constituted a line. Also, in diff, if a single null line ending with \n was inserted in a file ahead of another null line ending with \r\n, it caused both lines to mismatch. 343. [NT] More now uses only the window size, not the buffer size for vertical scrolling. This makes it reasonable to use more in a window with vertical scroll bars (which many users like so they can refer to previous commands). 344. Date now accepts POSIX-compatible format strings as options. 345. The cmp utility has been added. Use cmp -h for help. 346. The binedit -i option didn't work. It does now. Fix Level 2.2.37 Changes: 347. [NT] A bug that caused more to scribble trash after the end of its window in a larger buffer if the sequence End-PageDown-PageDown- PageUp-PageUp was typed has been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.38 Changes: 348. [NT] The setrows utility has been added for NT. Use setrows -h for help. 349. The renet.csh utility for restoring unavailable LanMgr network resources has been added to the samples directory. Fix Level 2.2.39 Changes: 350. The sh_2_csh.csh script didn't work if it wasn't given an argument, i.e., if it was just run against stdin, due to changes in the way null arguments were treated at release 2.2.j. The script has been changed to work properly under the new rules. Fix Level 2.2.40 Changes: 351. The sort utility has been added. Under NT, it's named hsort.exe and aliased in startup.csh to avoid conflicts with the standard MS sort. 352. The quicksort routine used in ls.exe has been improved slightly. 353. Trying to extract a directory by name from an archive with tar extracted just the directory, not any of its contents. That's fixed. 354. Wildcarded drive letters with nothing following, e.g., *:, failed under both the C shell and in the tar wildcarding routines. That's fixed. 355. [NT] The cl.csh script now knows about VC++ on the Alpha. 356. The table for determining if a character was binary data used by diff and tar missed a couple characters. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.41 Changes: 357. Sort didn't properly treat cases where -n or -N was used on the whole record. Under NT, if it was reading from a file on disk (where it used a mapped file), -n and -N caused protection violations. Also, the -f option didn't work right. All that's fixed. 358. sum now supports the POSIX CRC-32 cksum algorithm via the new -p option. Fix Level 2.2.42 Changes: 359. uniq now supports the -f and -s options for skipping an initial number of fields or characters in its comparisons. 360. The paste utility has been added. 361. A typo in the help screen for sort has been corrected. Fix Level 2.2.43 Changes: 362. The C shell was incorrectly freeing up a fast mutex (a Critical Section under NT; a RAM semaphore under OS/2) that it didn't own in two separate instances. This was innocuous except under a checked build of NT (i.e., one that checks parameters to all API calls), where it caused the C shell to crash if one attempted to run a script or to run a child process in the background. 363. The C shell was backgrounding all GUI apps run interactively, even when the context (e.g., "a; b" or "a && b") suggested there might be a serial dependency. That's fixed. 364. [NT] The ANSI interpretation routines used by the C shell and all the utilities now use the visible window, not the whole buffer, as the basis for screen clearing, cursor positioning, etc. The major effect is that typing "cls" in a window with a vertical scroll bar, clears the window but doesn't discard everything else in the buffer. 365. Everything has been recompiled. The major reasons were to ensure that the new ANSI libraries were used everywhere and to take advantage of the latest VC++ compilers on Intel and Alpha and the new build 944 compiler for PowerPC. The OS/2 version was also rebuilt to so it'd show the same timestamps and version numbers. 366. [NT] wtypes.h, objidl.h and oaidl.h have been added to the samples\skip file to suppress nuisance warnings generated by compiling with these headers. 367. [NT/PPC] The samples\cl.csh script now knows that on PowerPC builds after 944, the compiler is called cl.exe, not mcl.exe. 368. A minor bug in word selection was fixed. Fix Level 2.2.44 Changes: 369. Grep and sed now accept escape sequences inside [...]-style ranges. Also, sed has a new -N (normalize line ends) option that makes it easier to use sed scripts ported from UNIX that expect text to use the UNIX convention of a single \n character, not a \r\n pair, at the end of each line. 370. A minor typo in the help screen for ls was fixed. 371. The sum -p option didn't properly calculate the POSIX CRC. It should now. Fix Level 2.2.45 Changes: 372. [NT] A minor (actually, never observed) bug due to a typo in the semaphoring of the keyboard inside the C shell was fixed. Fix Level 2.2.46 Changes: 373. A number of improvements were made to tar: 1. [NT] With some of the newest high-performance scsi controllers, tar wasn't properly aligning its buffers, causing it to fail; that's now fixed. 2. [NT] tar can now automatically detect the blocksize of a tape it's trying to read. Under NT 3.5 or earlier, it just iterates over the possibilities, ratcheting by 512 bytes/block at a time. Under 3.51 or later, it uses a feature called variable block i/o to determine the blocksize directly. 3. The help screen has been improved considerably with the addition of examples. 4. The old -c option has been renamed the -y option so that a new -c option, meaning create a new archive, could be defined per the Posix standard. 5. Tar now uses a default blocksize of 10,240 bytes, per the POSIX standard. 6. Tar didn't properly identify and preserve the case of filenames passed on the command line when writing to an archive. It does now. 7. Tar didn't properly handle cases of collisions during extraction due to to files whose names differed only in case. It does now. 8. When writing to an archive, unless the archive is on a tape device, tar now pads only to the next 512-byte boundary, not the next blocksize. 374. [NT] The mt utility has been improved. Under NT 3.51 or later, it uses variable block i/o to determine the media blocksize by actually reading the tape. Also, the status output has been improved to give additional basic information without having to require the verbose option. 375. The help screens for dskwrite and dskread have been improved in the examples that mention tar. 376. [NT] The how2tar.{wri,txt} documents have been improved to reflect the use of the latest build of tar. Fix Level 2.2.47 Changes: 377. Minor typos in the help screens for sum, sort, sed, tar, dskread and dskwrite were corrected. Fix Level 2.2.48 Changes: 378. [NT] Under NT 3.5, if the tape device was set for a zero blocksize and tar was needed to determine the actual blocksize used on a tape, it would fail. (The workaround was to set the blocksize to a non-zero value, e.g.., by using "mt blksize 512" before running tar.) This new build includes a check for this problem under NT 3.5. Fix Level 2.2.49 Changes: 379. [OS/2] Setting MIXEDCASEDRIVES and cd'ing to a non-existent relative path caused the shell to hang. That's fixed. 380. The PV_Annuity and FV_Annuity formulas in the finance.csh sample script were wrong and have been corrected. 381. The trapz.csh script for numeric integration using the trapezoidal rule has been added to the samples directory. Fix Level 2.2.50 Changes: 382. [OS/2] Wildcarding the drive letters didn't work with root directories. For example, "echo [d-j]:\" would cause a crash. That's fixed. 383. [NT] The mixedpath function didn't work if any of the segments in the name it was given was a short, 8.3 name. Those names are now properly converted to the long versions in mixed case. 384. The -e option didn't cause all input, including that read from scripts, to be echoed. It does now. A new per-thread shell variable, echoallinput works like echoinput except that echoallinput is inherited by child threads. Also, when echoinput was set, the shell would print just the first line of any scripts (during the course of looking for a #!/bin/csh line at the start). Scripts should, of course, have been echoed completely or not at all. That's all fixed. 385. A new shell variable, OperatingSystem, has been defined which tells the name of the operating system on which the shell is running. 386. [NT] New shortname() and longname() functions have been added to allow filenames to be shrunk to 8.3 rules or expanded out (if they're not already) to long names for Win32 apps. Also, new editing operators, :A (alternate shortname) and :L (longname) have been added. These functions are useful in preparing arguments to be passed to DOS or Win3.x applications. 387. A new fullmixedpath() function and corresponding :M editing operator have been added. These return the fullpath in mixed case of a file. 388. A new -C file test operator has been added which tells if a file has been compressed. (Under OS/2 it always returns False.) 389. [NT and Win95] To be more sensible across both NT and Win95, the NTVersion variable has been renamed as WinBuild. The old name still works (to avoid breaking any scripts), but new scripts should probably use the new name. Also, the ver.csh script has been changed to use the OperatingSystem and WinVersion variables to report more accurately on Win95. Fix Level 2.2.51 Changes: 390. [Win95] The WinBuild number is now masked to just the low-order 16-bits returned by GetVersionEx; Win95 was putting a version number into the high-order bits that made the build number look funny. E.g., on build 484, the build number was coming back as 0x40001e4. Masking just the low bits give the value 0x1e4 == 484 as really desired. 391. [NT/PPC] IBM and Motorola made a change in the way FP exceptions are handled in the math libraries at NT 3.51 RC 2 and later builds. That caused unhandled exceptions in the sqrt and other transcendental routines. Also, they've improved the compiler optimization strategies. For these and other reasons, the shell and all the utilities have been re-compiled from scratch for the final release of 3.51 using the latest libraries. 392. [NT] The prsht.h and imm.h headers have been added to the samples\skip file. Fix Level 2.2.52 Changes: 392. Under Berkeley Compatibility mode, the C shell now recognizes the "else if" combination typed on one line with only a single endif to close the structure. 393. Under Berkeley Compatibility mode, the C shell wasn't correctly recognizing quoted strings and other substitutions in =~ and !~ patterns. 394. The C shell now correctly recognizes {...} variable syntax as isolated from anything following, including what previously was interpreted as :-style editing operators, which are now treated as literal text. Fix Level 2.2.53 Changes: 395. The C shell wasn't encoding argument words to child processes correctly in certain cases involving multiple backslashes. E.g., echo a\b\c | grep "..*\\" didn't work properly. Similarly, the dskread, dskwrite, tar and OS/2 startwin utilities were decoding argv incorrectly in these same situations. All these cases are now fixed. 396. [NT/PPC] Tar wasn't properly converting between the timestamp formats used in the tar archive and by Windows NT. It does now. 397. The f2c.csh and c2f.csh scripts have been added to the samples directory for Fahrenheit/Celsius conversions Fix Level 2.2.54 Changes: 398. ls.exe now knows about the compressed attribute supported under NT 3.51. In long format (-L), a "C" in the attributes means the file is compressed; "C" can also be used in selecting file types just like the other attributes. But this also forced the previously existing -C option for capitalization to be renamed as the -T (True mixed case) option. Also, ls now has a new -F option that causes it to add a backslash following the name of any directories listed in its output. 399. ls, tar, mv, cp and rm now accept new READONLYFILES and READONLYDIRS environment variables for controlling the color used when listing files and directories marked read-only. 400. [NT] chmod.exe now knows how to compress or uncompress files and directories using +C or -C. 401. chmod, touch and mkdir have a new -w (warnings only) option that causes them to continue even if they encounter problems with some of the files. 402. [NT] mv, cp and rm could generate ANSI escape sequences if -l (logging) was used, but those sequences weren't getting displayed properly. That's fixed. 403. mkdir now has a new -r (recursive) option that causes it to make any missing intermediate directory levels that may be required. 404. The boot sector written by dskwrite has a hidden message with contact information for Hamilton Laboratories; that's been updated with our new address in Sudbury. 405. The "fix" for args ending in \'s done at 2.2.53 introduced a new off-by-one error that could corrupt the heap. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.55 Changes: 406. The allocate/free code for the C shell now has some additional checking added to watch for any possible heap corruption. 407. [NT] The shortname and longname functions and their associated :A and :L editing operators expanded "." and ".." names, producing erroneous results. That's fixed. 408. [NT] ls could display the compressed attribute but not select based on it. That's fixed. 409. [NT] If the machine was powered up, then a new tape was loaded, tar would fail. Both tar and mt knew to ignore either a bus reset (initial power-on) or media changed status condition, but they didn't know to expect both in succession. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.56 Changes: 410. [NT/Alpha] A code generation error in Visual C++ caused alignment exceptions in the C shell and many of the utilities if the Alpha was run with "axpalign /enable". Simplifying the code has avoided the problem. 411. If the home directory was set to the root of any drive, then any attempt to pass arguments to a child of the form "~\foo" caused an assertion failure. That's fixed. 412. The samples\sh_2_csh\readme file has been updated (finally) with our new address and phone numbers. Fix Level 2.2.57 Changes: 413. The shell would crash if it encountered an error inside the evaluation of a quoted string if it had already collected part of the result. E.g., echo "@ $@:-$@" would cause the failure. That's fixed; you now get the appropriate error message and the shell continues. Fix Level 2.2.58 Changes: 414. Tar didn't properly resolve filenames passed on the command line if the MIXEDCASEDRIVES environment variable was set. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.59 Changes: 415. Xd didn't work right with a radix < 8 if byte or word formatting was requested. That's been fixed. 416. The help screen for tar had an error in the description of one of the examples that's been fixed. 417. The C shell's :-style pathediting routines weren't rescanning the results and could overlook cases where the results contained C shell wildcard characters. Downstream, this could cause the C shell to crash when passing arguments to child processes, e.g., in "myecho x:A". 418. Multi-character word separators, e.g., >>, inside an alias definition containing a history reference were treated as ordinary text during any expansion. That's fixed. 419. Passing a null character to a child process (e.g., myecho a ^0 b) from the C shell caused the shell to crash. Passing it to an internal command (e.g., echo a ^0 b) produced garbage. That's now fixed. 420. [NT] The dskread and dskwrite utilities and the blksize sample now use page-aligned rather than paragraph-aligned buffers. 421. [NT] A new ps -s option has been added to allow ps to list details of all the processes system-wide. 422. sunrise.csh has been added to the samples directory. 423. [NT] The C shell and all the utilities and samples have been internationalized to support use of languages such as Russian that use non-Latin alphabets. Non-Latin characters can now be used in filenames, wildcards, strings, variable names, etc. 424. [NT] The sed -s option for reading a sed script from stdin didn't work. It does now. 425. Dskwrite now puts "Hamilton", not "IBM 10.2" into the system name field immediately preceding the Bios Parameter Block, and "FAT12", not "FAT" into the reserved field of the BPB in the boot record when formatting a diskette. Fix Level 2.2.60 Changes: 426. Setting the search path to a null list caused the shell to crash. It's hard to know why anyone would want to do this, but it should have worked. It does now. 427. "uuencode infile decodename" didn't work; it complained it couldn't open Stdin. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.61 Changes: 428. [NT] mt and tar weren't correctly examining the version number for NT and were incorrectly concluding that variable blocksizes weren't supported. This limited their ability to diagnose unknown blocksizes. Fix Level 2.2.62 Changes: 429. The shell could trip an assert and crash while building up the command line to be passed to a child process in certain cases, e.g., del '*.out', where del invokes the alias defined in startup.csh. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.63 Changes: 430. [NT] Tar would fail because it couldn't set the blocksize when used with an Archive Viper 150 QIC drive. That's fixed; it now just gives a warning and continues, using whatever the drive is already set to. 431. [NT] mt status would give any status information other than an error message if there was no media in the drive. It now gives that message, but continues to at least give status on the drive itself. Also, it now accepts "eject" as a synonym for "unload". Fix Level 2.2.64 Changes: 432. sed's w (write file) command didn't know how to create the file if it didn't already exist. That's fixed. Also, the changes made at 2.2.44 to allow line end normalization caused all output from a w command to go to stdout, not the intended file. That also is fixed. 433. The sunrise.csh sample script used the exit command rather than return if an error was encountered inside the self-loading procedure. If it was run a second time, producing the same error, it caused the whole shell to exit. It now uses return. Fix Level 2.2.65 Changes: 434. [NT] Tar didn't properly handle blocksizes greater than 64K or so. That's fixed. 435. The C shell would crash trying to pass certain kinds of command line arguments to a child process. E.g., myecho '\"' would cause it to crash. That's now fixed. 436. [Win95] The ps -s option now knows how to list all processes system- wide under Windows 95. 437. [NT] The C shell and ls now work much better inside a GNU emacs buffer. Previously, ls complained about not being able to open the display to determine the screen size. It now just quietly assumes an 80-column window. The C shell would hang if it needed to give an error message trying to word-wrap on what it thought was a zero-width screen; it also now just assumes an 80-column screen. Also, the C shell was setting the console state to make Ctrl-C an interrupt, which made it impossible to type the Ctrl-X Ctrl-C combination used to edit emacs. Now, the csh -Y option tells the C shell not to change the keyboard state. 438. [Win95] The installation instructions in the readme file for the NT version now describe how to do the installation on Windows 95. 439. [Win95] The C shell now incorporates a workaround for what appears to be a Win95 bug that caused console apps run as children of the C shell with stdin tied to the keyboard to see a spurious \r\n when they started up. In these cases, the C shell now flushes the keyboard buffer as it starts the child. 440. [NT] The shell, all the utilities and all the sample files have been completely rebuilt using the new VC++ 4.0 compilers on Intel, MIPS and Alpha. 441. [NT] The C shell now has a new brand-new color icon. Fix Level 2.2.66 Changes: 442. [NT] The help screen for ls erroneously listed the OS/2-only -M option. That's been deleted. 443. [NT] A new -2 option has been added to newer and older that allows timestamps which fall into the same two-second interval to compare equal. This is useful when files are moved between NTFS (100 nsec granularity) and FAT or HPFS (2 sec granularity). 444. A new -d option has been added to diff. It works just like -D except the #else and #endif directives it generates have a comment telling what symbol was tested. 445. The C shell now does a better job of supporting the use of \ as the escapesym character. 446. [Win95] The installation instructions for Win95 have been further improved with discussion of how to customize the conagent used by Win95 to run Win32 console apps like the C shell. Also, csh.ico has been added to the bin directory for Intel to allow Win95 users to use that as the C shell icon. (Win95 does not appear capable of extracting icon resources from Win32 console apps.) 447. [NT] Tar and mt now support a -V option to turn off use of variable I/O if the tape drive firmware has a bug. Mt now correctly reports what blocksize the drive is set for, even if variable block i/o was used to determine the media blocksize. (Previously, it always reported blocksize 0 if variable block i/o was supported.) Also, invoking tar with no operand now gives the correct message saying you need to specify the archive. 448. The C shell now correctly backs up to the beginning of the previous quoted string when doing filename completion. This is especially important under Win95 where many of the system directories have spaces in their names. 449. Everything has been rebuilt again to insert copyright 1996 notices where appropriate. Fix Level 2.2.67 Changes: 450. In Berkeley compatibility mode, the endif and breaksw aliases weren't properly predefined. That's fixed. 451. If the escape character is set to \, the C shell now edits the results of any variable references or output from commands like cd or dirs to replace any \'s with /'s. Also, pwd and ls now report paths using /'s, not \'s, when the escape character is the backslash. 452. [NT/Win95] Setrows, tar, dskread and dskwrite now contain warnings in their help screens of limitations imposed by Windows 95. Also, dskread and dskwrite (which can't be used at all because the raw device can't be opened under Win95) now give an explicit message to that effect under Win95. 453. [NT] The how2tar.{txt,wri} documents have been updated to mention the tar -V option for overriding a drive's claims to support variable- block i/o and the -Hoff option for turning off hardware compression. Fix Level 2.2.68 Changes: 454. "cp a: \" complained about not being able to create an output directory "". That's fixed. It now copies everything from a: to the root. 455. Editing operations are no longer recognized following command substitutions in Berkeley Compatibility Mode. 456. Cron wasn't properly watching for escape characters in the command fields in a crontab file, making it impossible to embed % characters into a command. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.69 Changes: 457. Cmp's reporting with the -l (all differences) option has been corrected to show the values of the differing characters. The spurious message about differences at end-of-file if there were other differences elsewhere has been eliminated. Options have been added for specifying any desired radix for reporting offsets and character values and for requesting a Posix-compliant report. Fix Level 2.2.70 Changes: 458. unset didn't work in Berkeley Compatibility Mode; it does now. Also, unset can now be use to discard a local variable. 459. The :x and :q editing operators now work correctly. :x breaks up a string at word boundaries, then single quotes each section. :q just single quotes its argument. Previously, :q worked on history words, but not on run-time variables. :x didn't quote the resulting words and didn't work on history words containing quotes. 460. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, break now breaks out of the enclosing loop and breaksw breaks out of the enclosing switch, even if these enclosing structures are several nesting levels outside the present scope. 461. set, setenv, alias, proc, local, unset, unsetenv, unalias, unproc and unlocal now all accept wildcards to list out or discard all the variables, aliases, etc., whose names match the wildcard. 462. Writing a tape using tar -cff (to include drive letters in the file names) worked, but there was no way to restore to the specified drives. That's fixed. 463. [NT 4.0] A change in the way process data was reported from the registry caused ps -s to go into an infinite loop. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.71 Changes: 464. The fix at 2.2.70 to better implement breaksw in Berkeley Compatibility Mode didn't work. It should be working now. 465. The installation instructions have been improved. 466. An apparently innocuous uninitialized variable reference in the filename completion routines has been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.72 Changes: 467. If the escapesym was set to \, the :t (tail) operator failed in an assertion. That's fixed. 468. [Win95] Writing 0 characters to the console is acceptable under WinNT but fails under Win95, causing more to crash on highlighted lines of a full 80 characters. That's fixed. 469. Lots of minor typos have been fixed in the help screens of many of the utilities. All of them have been rebuilt. 470. The fixup.csh sample script now watches for non-existent files passed to it as arguments. 471. Minor improvements have been made to the installation instructions. Fix Level 2.2.73 Changes: 472. Minor typos in the help screens for date, diff, dskread, dskwrite, mt, sed, tar, tee, touch, wc and kill have been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.74 Changes: 473. [NT/Risc] Inadvertently, the new version of newer introduced at release 2.2.66 was omitted from the Risc versions. 474. [NT/Risc] The ps -s command to list all processes system-wide encountered an alignment exception on the MIPS and Alpha if alignment exceptions were enabled. Though not documented, apparently the ReqQueryValueEx api requires aligned buffers, which the C shell and cron now use. 475. ls and tar couldn't read files and directories specified with UNC names is MixedCaseDrives was set to \\ (meaning all UNC names are mixed case.) That's fixed. 476. The message cmp generated when it found a mismatch had a couple typos that have been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.75 Changes: 477. [NT] The change to cron at 2.2.74 to align buffers used with RegQueryValueEx caused cron to fail to operate properly as a service. That's fixed. 478. [NT] A minor change was made to the help screen for tar. Fix Level 2.2.76 Changes: 479. [OS/2] tar -cs didn't work. It hung in an infinite loop trying to write using a zero-length blocksize. That's fixed. 480. Dskread and dskwrite had a number of bugs that were fixed. Under NT, the -f option didn't work. Under OS/2, reading/writing non-standard data in the boot record didn't work. All these problems have been fixed. 481. "cp \x foobar", where \x is a single-character filename and foobar is a non-existant filename in a non-root current directory didn't work. It created an empty foobar directory rather than copying the file. It now works. 482. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, an endif or endsw that didn't match a preceding if or switch, respectively, caused the shell to hang. (The shell should have produced error messages and discarded the offending token. Instead, it entered a stuck state.) Also, if breaksw, endif or endsw aliases existed and Berkeley Compatibility Mode scripts were run that used these reserved words (predefined in this mode with no need for aliases), the shell would hang if the scripts were run more than once. (The shell was locking a critical section but not freeing it properly.) These problems have been fixed. 483. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, onintr now expects a goto label, not a statement as an operand, to be more compatible with the older BSD C shell. 484. The sort -u option didn't work. Also, under NT, sort wasn't ignoring differences in line ends (\n vs. \r\n) as it should have when comparing data read from a file rather than a pipe. (Files are special-cased using NT's mapped file mechanism for better performance and there was a bug in sort's parsing of mapped files.) These problems have been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.77 Changes: 485. "sed s/^^/x/g" didn't work. The global flag was overriding the ^ (beginning of line) anchor. That's fixed. 486. ls didn't show the right colors for readonly system files or directories due to bugs in the way it tried to merge the readonly color attributes with the system color attributes. The problem could also affect tar, mv, cp and rm. That's fixed. Also, although it shouldn't have affected them, the C shell, diff, du, more, pwd and vol also used that same library, so they've been rebuilt also. Fix Level 2.2.78 Changes: 487. The shell could crash during filename completion. E.g., type "ls \wabc", move the cursor to the "a", type Tab, then Backspace + \ + Tab. The problem occurred because the cursor would be pointing one past the end of a buffer (legal) but not generally aligned on the first character of the next buffer as expected by the completion routines. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.79 Changes: 488. [NT] Tar would complain and quit if, when trying to determine the blocksize using fixed block reads on an HP DAT, it tried to back up to try again and got an error code indicating it was already at the beginning of the tape. It now knows to ignore that error and continue. Fix Level 2.2.80 Changes: 489. The change at 2.2.66 to allow the C shell to handle quotes in filename completion introduced a bug causing strings with escape characters to fail. That's fixed. 490. A new which.csh script has been added which tells which alias, procedure or executable file will be run if a given command is typed. Fix Level 2.2.81 Changes: 491. Colon editing operators in an alias expansion that involved any command or variable substitution caused the shell to hang. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.82 Changes: 492. [NT] Moving a read-only file from one partition to another using mv caused the file to lose its read-only attribute. That's fixed. 493. If the last file in a cpio archive was zero length, it wasn't always listed by tar. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.83 Changes: 494. If an ASCII file was copied to a big-endian tar/cpio archive on disk and the length specified in the header required fixup (because \r\n line ends were converted to \n's) and that header happened to fall on something other than a 4-byte boundary, tar could crash with an assertion failure. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.84 Changes: 495. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, the C shell now recognizes $var[n-], as referring to elements n through last. Escape sequences are now preserved inside single and double quotes. In those cases where escapes are recognized, the Hamilton C shell enhancements for sequences such as ^r, ^n, etc., are disabled. When quotes are used in the eof-string for a here document, they must appear exactly as used in the original << statement. 496. [NT] The SwitchChars environment variable settings were being ignored by the C shell when processing its own command line options. This was deliberate under OS/2 because of the need to work when the C shell was used as the default shell but unnecessary under NT. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.85 Changes: 497. A couple minor memory leaks have been fixed. Under NT, in statements involving redirection, buffers were leaked for a while at startup. (The leak would fill after a short while and nothing more would leak.) Also, under either NT or OS/2, if a wildcard following a redirection operator was ambiguous (i.e., it matched more than one filename), the list of names was not freed. 498. Adding onto the end of a cpio archive didn't always work properly; tar thought it had run out of data when there was still more in its buffers. That's fixed. Also, the -s option didn't work properly when adding new files to the input. That also is fixed. Fix Level 2.2.86 Changes: 499. The min, max, average and read scripts have been added to the samples directory. 500. The sh_2_csh conversion utility in the samples directory has been improved in a number of ways: a) for.sed has been renamed loop.sed and now handles while and until loops. b) misc.sed now properly rewrites$0 as $scriptname and$1 through $9 as$0 through $8; it no longer bothers to escape$'s standing alone (not needed since build 2.2.g); it now escapes the line end if the statement is a pipe that continues on the next line. c) expr.sed does a better job of rewriting test statements and now properly quotes strings inside expressions. d) sh_2_csh.csh now properly handles the case where it should take its input from stdin (i.e., no filename is specified) or where there are multiple input files (which are concatenated). 501. [Win95] The C shell now knows to flush the input buffer if a child is started with stdin connected to the console even if it's run from a script or background thread. 502. [NT/Win95] The whoami utility has been added. 503. The new laptop.csh script in the samples directory now offers an alternative color scheme that's useful on a laptop computer or with a projector. Fix Level 2.2.87 Changes: 504. ls -l / did not show the filenames if escapesym was set to \ (UNIX-style). That's fixed. 505. The C shell's filename completion feature backed up to the preceding backquote, if any. That wasn't sensible and has been fixed. 506. The C shell now insists that an alias is recognized only if it's the entire word, not just the first token. Previously, if an alias "foo" existed, defined as "hello", then "foo/bar" was taken as meaning "hello bar". Obviously, the alias expansion should not be done here and has been fixed. 507. [NT] The whoami utility has been enhanced to allow it to print the groups to which a user belongs. 508. The tar utility has been enhanced in a number of ways: a) A separate thread is now used for doing all the low-level i/o to read/write the archive. In most cases, this will have very little effect on performance, but when used with a drive lacking any hardware buffering, tar may not always have been able to supply data fast enough to keep it in streaming mode. That should no longer be a problem. b) Continuation tapes are now supported under NT. c) Ustar and GNU extension formats for long filenames are now supported. d) tar -s didn't work. It does now. 509. [NT] The line length limitations of all the following utilities have been removed: cut, diff, fgrep, grep, sed, uniq, uuencode, uudecode, more, paste and sort. Also, sort had a bug that caused it to truncate the input data without even a warning message if any line was longer than 64K characters. That was fixed also. 510. [OS/2] moreh (the huge more) utility still doesn't support truly unlimited length lines, but it will do lines up to 65,000 characters long before starting to chop them up into pieces. Previously, the limit was about 4K characters. Fix Level 2.2.88 Changes: 511. If a read-only, system directory was listed by ls, the colors were not reset properly afterward. That's fixed. 512. [NT 4.0] A bug in NT 4.0 caused it to fail to pass an environment string representing the current directory on the current drive when starting the C shell. Children (e.g., pwd) would think they were running in the root directory. This build now has a workaround. 513. Filename completion using Alt-F or Ctrl-F didn't work properly if the pattern matched several files. It does now. Also, a minor resource leak in the filename completion routine has been fixed. 514. The getopt utility has been added. 515. The basename.csh and dirname.csh scripts have been added to the samples directory. 516. The sh_2_csh scripts have been enhanced as follows: a) PATH statements are now special-cased. E.g., PATH=${PATH}:$SRC/bin:$TOOLSDIR/bin is rewritten as set PATH="${PATH};$SRC/bin;$TOOLSDIR/bin" b) if the "then" and "do" keywords appear on the same line (separated by a semicolon) with the matching "if" or looping construct keyword, that's now handled properly. c) The -a expression operator is now rewritten as &&. d) Expressions containing quoted strings with semicolons, etc., are now handled more sensibly. Fix Level 2.2.89 Changes: 517. [NT & Win95] The AltGr key wasn't handled properly under Win95 on the German keyboard. Alt-NumericPad key combinations weren't recognized at all on the U.S. keyboard and only partially on foreign keyboards. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.90 Changes: 518. The changes made to tar at 2.2.87 introduced a couple bugs. Listing a tar file that ended abruptly could hang. Trying to append to a tar file could crash in some cases. Trying to append to an archive on stdio didn't work. Also, a long-standing bug caused an incorrect error message if no tarfile was specified and the -s (stdio option) was not used instead. All these bugs should now be corrected. Fix Level 2.2.91 Changes: 519. [NT] Tar can now handle offsets within an archive up to 2**64 bytes (1.84e+7 GB), far more than the previous limit of 2**32 bytes (4.3 GB). This improvement was needed now that DAT tapes capable of holding 8GB or more have become commonly available. 520. User-defined procedure names were supposed to be case-sensitive in the C shell but in fact were not. That's fixed. 521. The C shell couldn't start .bat or .cmd files if the pathname contained spaces or other special characters. That's fixed. 521. [NT] Stack overflows (usually caused by infinite recursion in a user-defined procedure) caused the C shell to crash due to continued stack overflows in the diagnostic routines. Stack overflows are now properly handled with a message and a popup. The C shell still can't continue execution, but at least the termination is clean. 522. If the escapesym was set to \, fullpath ../anything would fail, claiming the shell was running out of memory. That's fixed. 523. Colors = none is now recognized to mean turn off all ANSI escape sequences from the C shell and all the utilities. If Colors is undefined or set to the null string, that's interpreted as meaning "use the colors in effect at the cursor position when the process starts up." Also, we've discovered that the blink attribute is actually interpreted by the operating system to mean a bright background color (except under OS/2 in full-screen). The blink keyword is now considered obsolete, replaced by "bright" as a background color modifier. The white.csh script has been added to the samples directory with an example color scheme using a bright white background. 524. [NT] The open utility has been added, which allows an arbitrary file to be opened using the application associated with that filetype as specified in the registry. 525. [NT] The mt utility can now display offsets and media capacities greater than 2**32 as huge integers rather than as : segments. Fix Level 2.2.92 Changes: 526. [NT] The work on improving color support at 2.2.91 introduced a bug in that caused highlighting to fail in the C shell and some of the utilities. Fix Level 2.2.93 Changes: 527. [Win95] After running some DOS apps, the console text attributes of the first C shell prompt could be scrambled, due to a bug in Win95. This build contains a workaround. Fix Level 2.2.94 Changes: 527. Tar would fail in some assertion statements if fed garbage data as an archive file or if it was specifically told to read an archive in the wrong bytesex. That's fixed. 528. A number of random typos were fixed in the help screens in a number of builtin and external utilities. No functional changes were made. 529. The C shell's :e operator could fail if the escapesym was set to \. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.95 Changes: 530. Quotes and escape characters weren't processed correctly inside tar include files. That's fixed. 531. Octal escape sequences starting with ^07 or ^7 didn't work properly inside wildcards in the shell and in tar. That's fixed. 532. [OS/2] A fix made at 2.2.90 introduced a bug in processing of command line options. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.96 Changes: 533. A bug in the way the C shell scanned ${...},$<,  and $* variable references could cause heap corruptions under rare conditions. That's fixed. 534. [OS/2] The fix at 2.2.85 to fix a minor memory leak caused the C shell to hang when a pipeline was run under OS/2 because a lock was not being freed. That's fixed. 535. unproc * caused the C shell to hang under OS/2 and to crash in some cases under NT. That's fixed. 536. [OS/2] unsetenv * caused the C shell to hang under OS/2. That's fixed. 537. [OS/2] Attempting to unsetenv COLORS caused the C shell to crash with a protection violation. That's fixed. 538. The C shell would crash if the :x operator was applied against the result of another :-edit of a history reference containing paired quotes. For example, echo 'now' 'is' 'the' 'time' echo !*:s/the/THE/:x would fail. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.97 Changes: 539. Embedded comments have been added. A "##" token, preceded and followed by white space, marks the beginning and end of an embedded comment. For example: % echo hello ## comment ## world hello world 540. A new per-thread shell variable, scripted, tells if the shell is interpreting a command passed on the command line or a shell script (but not a sourced script.) 541. A number of improvements were made to Berkeley Compatibility Mode to conform more precisely to the behavior of the Berkeley C shell: a. The set command now accepts a list of variable names which will set to the "set" state (1). There is no need to type an equal sign or a value. For example: set noglob nonomatch b. In an expression, character strings are taken as literals. For example: if ($xyz == -) .... c. Comments in the middle of a multi-line statement end at the end of that physical line. They do not run all the way to the end of the entire statement. This was a trick in the Berkeley C shell to embed comments into the middle of a statement. This feature is implemented by rewriting these comments as embedded comments wherever they occur. d. Embedding a newline into a quoted string now has a different effect, depending on whether the C shell is running a script or not. If scripted == 1, the newline turns into 2 spaces; otherwise, it's preserved as a literal newline. e. Inside quotes, the Berkeley C shell required two escape characters to escape a newline. Hamilton C shell will now accept either one or two escape characters inside quotes while in Berkeley Compatibility Mode as a means of escaping a newline. f. It is now possible to test whether a predefined variable is set using the $?var (existence) construct in Berkeley mode. g. onintr and onintr - are now recognized as enabling or disabling interrupts, respectively. 542. If the path variable was set to contain an impossibly long directory name, the shell would crash when trying to execute an external program. That's fixed. 543. More would crash when up-arrowing through files that contained some extremely long lines. That's fixed. 544. The C shell now allows variables to be named the same as the reserved words, e.g., foreach or if or set. Fix Level 2.2.98 Changes: 545. Tar would crash if it needed to interactively rename a file being extracted and the user simply pressed Enter, meaning they wanted to accept tar's suggested renaming. Also, tar had trouble matching filenames that started with \ or / when listing or extracting. Both these problems are fixed. 546. Mkdir would print the help screen, rather than the usage message it should have generated if you forgot to tell it what you wanted it to create. Also, attempts to recursively create a directory structure that started at the root didn't work. Both these problems are fixed. Fix Level 2.2.99 Changes: 547. [OS/2] sort -k didn't work. It'd complain of a usage error. The bug that caused this could also affect paste and uniq. That's been fixed in all these utilities. 548. ls, mv, cp, rm and tar didn't properly construct default color values for read-only and system directories. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.100 Changes: 549. [NT] tar's -a (append) option didn't work properly with tapes. The prompt for continuation tapes specified the wrong tape number (off by one) and continuation tapes did not work when listing or extracting an archive. Also, tar could hang if the binary zeros marker (indicating end of archive data) was followed by additional blocks. All these problems have been fixed. 550. head, tail and tabs did not consider the NewLine character to be a repositioning to the beginning of the line. That produced strange results if they were allowed to do tab expansion on UNIX files with only a NewLine at the end of each line. That's fixed. 551. In Berkeley mode inside backquotes, comments are considered embedded, meaning they end at the end of the original source line if the line end is escaped, even inside a script. This change was dictated for compatibility with the original Berkeley C shell. Fix Level 2.2.101 Changes: 552. [NT] The -x (executable) filesystem test didn't work with .csh, .cmd and .bat files. It does now. Fix Level 2.2.102 Changes: 553.$?0 through $?9 now meaningfully report whether argv[0] through$argv[9] are defined. 554. In Berkeley mode, sourcing a script with no arguments (as was required by the original Berkeley C shell) causes argv to be unchanged as seen by the script. 555. [NT/AXP] On systems with FX32 (the 32-bit Intel simulator) loaded, CreateProcess returns a different return code if passed a non-existent pathname. That caused the C shell to generate a spurious message. The C shell now knows to expect this new possible return code. Also, as part of the fix, the C shell is now much faster at reporting failure when a requested command really can't be found. 556. [NT] A new file, vi-perl.txt, tells where to find excellent vi and perl utilities on the Internet. Fix Level 2.2.103 Changes: 557. paste didn't work properly. It was off by one on the files and wasn't merging in data from the last; occasionally it crashed. All that's fixed. 558. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, the pattern in a case clause may now contain substitutions. Fix Level 2.2.104 Changes: 559. The fix to 2.2.102 to the source command introduced a bug in Berkeley mode that'd cause the shell to crash if one sourced a script from the command line that used command substitution. That's fixed. 560. wc didn't count the last word in a file if the file didn't end with any whitespace or end-of-line characters. The POSIX standard is ambiguous on whether this is/is not proper behavior but because most vendors do count that last word, the Hamilton wc utility has been changed. Fix Level 2.2.105 Changes: 561. [NT] Setting the current directory to a shortname didn't work properly. It does now, properly expanding the name out to the full path. 562. The variable exists ($?var) function didn't work on MixedCaseDrives, CshOptions, NETWORKBUG and SwitchChars. It does now. 563. [NT] Running NT Backup, then tar, in quick succession would occasionally cause tar to fail, reporting that the tape was empty when in fact, the drive was simply busy. This has been fixed. Fix Level 2.2.106 Changes: 564. [NT] If the initial current directory inherited by the C shell was not on the C: drive and the drive letter was in lower case, the C shell did not set up its current directories correctly. That's fixed. 565. It is no longer considered an error if an embedded comment does not have a closing ##. Instead, it's just considered to run until the end of the line. The requirement of a closing ## was breaking too many Berkeley C shell existing scripts that had ## at the beginning of the line. 566. The nagware popup in the demo version of the C shell now gives our new email address and web site URL. 567. A number of messages from the C shell contained advice to type help to get additional information about the exception condition. That assumed the user had the help procedure defined and the winhelp sample program on his search path, assumptions that weren't always valid. The messages now just give the return code. 568. The a2e.csh and e2a.csh scripts for converting ASCII to EBCDIC and back have been added to the samples directory. 569. A number of references to our old email address have been changed to reflect our new domain name. Fix Level 2.2.107 Changes: 570. [Win95/International machines only] Setting an environment variable did not work. The variable was not actually exported to child processes. The C shell was trying to use the UNICODE version of the Win32 SetEnvironmentVariable function, which was not supported on Win95. This has been corrected. 571. [NT] Additional lines have been added to the samples/skip file to filter additional noise-level messages from the compiler involving GetFiberData, GetCurrentFiber, math.h and process.h when using the ferr filter alias. Fix Level 2.2.108 Changes: 572. The various filesystem tests, e.g., -d to test if a name is a directory, didn't properly lock down the current directories as a critical resource and could fail if another thread was active changing the current directory. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.109 Changes: 573. tabs -u didn't work if the TABS environment variable wasn't set. That's fixed. It now properly defaults to TABS=8. 574. tar didn't know to disregard the lengths given for block, character and FIFO special devices. If the archive contained one of these files (which have no analog on NT or OS/2 anyway), tar typically would complain of a garbled header. That's fixed. 575. The C shell no longer allows goto statements to goto a label outside the scope of a sourced script. This fixes a long-standing problem repeatedly sourcing a script that contains a goto near the beginning to a label near the end. Instead of going to the label at the end, the goto went to the label from the previous invocation. That's fixed. 576. When sourcing a script, the default now is to execute the script but not to load it into the history list. Also, additional options have been provided for syntax checking, with/without loading to history. 577. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, the status result of a pipe has been changed to be the rightmost non-zero status, to be more consistent with the original C shell. 578. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, if an error occurred in a sourced script, the error message incorrectly showed the name of the script that called it. That's fixed. 579. The timestmp.csh sample script didn't work right if the argument was a directory. It does now. 580. [NT] The open utility didn't work on files specified relative to the current directory on another drive due to a limitation in the ShellExecuteEx api. This build contains a workaround. Fix Level 2.2.110 Changes: 581. [NT] The C shell and all the utilities (in particular, tar, ls, du and vol) have all been enhanced to allow the current directory to be set to a UNC path. When the current directory is a UNC path, the drive letter will be shown as "@:". (@ comes just before A in the ASCII codeset.) Previously, the C shell would crash if the user attempted to set the current directory to a UNC path. If it inherited a UNC path, the C shell didn't crash, but it didn't work, either. 582. [NT/Alpha] du would fail with a floating point exception on an audio CD. That's fixed. 583. The laptop.csh sample script has been improved to set HIGHLIGHT (used by pwd, du, vol, etc.) to bright yellow. 584. [NT] If a path was passed to tar as a shortname on a mixed case drive, tar did not properly consider that the mixed case version of the name might be longer. It does now. 585. If the escapesym was set to a \, the C shell was conventionally flipping any \ characters appearing in a variable substitution to be / characters. That's fixed. Also, the C shell will no longer perform escape processing on the output of variable and command substitutions to be more in keeping generally with the various UNIX shells. 586. In Berkeley Compatibility Mode, ignoreerrors will be set to 2 by default to be more like the Berkeley UNIX C shell, which continues execution even if, e.g., it encounters a nomatch wildcard failure or an attempt to execute a non-existent command. 587. The timestmp.csh sample script didn't work if the minutes or seconds value in a timestamp was 08 or 09 because it tried to interpret the value as octal. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.111 Changes: 588. Tar didn't properly parse filenames in an archive that contained ".." segments and would crash. That's fixed. 589. [NT] If end-of-data is reached on a tape before any data has been found (i.e., the tape is empty), tar no longer bothers prompting for a continuation tape. It just exits. 590. The sh_2_csh\readme file has been updated with our new website address. Fix Level 2.2.112 Changes: 591. The change at 2.2.102 to improve treatment of argv when sourcing a script introduced a problem: if a script was sourced without any arguments in normal mode, any previous argv was lost. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.113 Changes: 592. More would crash if the Home or End key was pressed when viewing a zero-length file. That's fixed. 593. When reporting a change consisting of 2 or more lines replaced by a single line in default listing mode, diff was off by one in its reporting of the line number in the new file. That's fixed. Also, in that mode, diff no longer puts spaces around the "a" (add), "c" (change) or "d" delete characters unless requested with the new -s option; this change is for better compatibility with UNIX diffs. 594. Paste and sort had a bug in their buffering that could cause them free an internal buffer before it was actually free. The bug could be demonstrated with paste under NT: % paste a a <-- output from paste % <-- new prompt when paste crashes This has been fixed. 595. The xargs utility has been added. 596. [NT] The ps -s built-in utility would crash the C shell if one of the processes it listed was still starting up and had not yet accumulated any runtime. Also, on some RISC machines under NT 4.0, the accumulated _Total time can be impossibly large, causing an overflow exception. All that's been fixed. 597. [NT] A workaround has finally been found that allows redirection to CONOUT$ (the console display), in from CONIN$(the console keyboard) or out to/in from CON (display and keyboard) to be inherited under NT. Fix Level 2.2.114 Changes: 598. [NT] Tar would crash if it tried to archive a file that had a timestamp earlier than Jan 1, 1970 or later than Feb 7, 2106. That's fixed; dates outside that range are now truncated to the endpoints. 599. The command line editing in the C shell has now been enhanced. A new -P command line option to the C shell tells it that all word- oriented operations should treat individual pathname segments as separate words. Also, a bug that caused filename completion to be confused by separate words consisting of two quotes (eg., "") has been fixed. 600. [NT] If an external command name containing a space (e.g., "c:\program files\hello.exe") was run, argv[0] was incorrectly passed as two separate words ("c:\program" + "files\hello.exe"). That's fixed. This problem affected both the C shell and cron. 601. [NT] The su (super user), chown (change ownership) and chgrp (change group) commands have been added. 602. The env (run a command with a new environment) command has been added. 603. [NT] Though never reported, it's possible that unsetting an environment variable whose name contained foreign characters would not have worked. That's fixed. 604. Minor typos in the xargs help screen were fixed. Also, when using xargs' built-in echo command, xargs now watches for the return codes from the write operations to stdout. 605. The entire product has been rebuilt to consider that UNC pathnames can be up to 96 characters longer than the longest possible name on any given partition. 606. [NT] Cron -status has been dramatically improved to give far more complete information about how it's installed and running as a service. 607. [NT] ls has been enhanced with new -o and -O (owner) and -g and -G (group) command line options that cause it to report the owner and/or group of a file or directory. 608. [NT] If a hidden environment variable for one of the current directories specified a path using /'s rather than \'s, NT has a bug that causes it to default to the root on that drive. The C shell now works around that problem by ensuring that it always uses backslashes. 609. A bug in the C shell's built-in echo command would cause a crash if the string being written was exactly 511 characters long. That's fixed. 610. The C shell no longer routinely translates pathnames to lower case when setting the path variable. 611. The contact info in the demo versions of the shell and utilities and in the readme (install) and readme.too (release notes) files has been updated to reflect our new area code. 612. A bug in the buffering algorithm used by paste and sort could cause them to produce incorrect results when reading from a pipe, particularly if the input contained lots of short records. That's fixed. 613. [NT] The common routine used by the C shell, env, su and xargs to determine what type of application was in an executable file did not know about a very old DOS format and would claim they were not executable. That's fixed. 614. The pattern matching routines in the C shell, grep, sed and tar didn't treat a - at the end of a [...] list as a literal character. Instead, the - was ignored. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.2.115 Changes: 615. [Win95] The enhancement made to ls at 2.2.114 to allow it to list owner information caused it to fail to load under Win95 because Win95 omits even a stub for one of the required functions. This has been fixed. 616. [Win95] The chown, chgrp and su utilities would exit with a message saying Win95 was not supported even if it was just the help screen being requested. Obviously, you should be able to get help. That's fixed. 617. [NT] Very old builds of NT omitted one of the security functions used by su and would cause su to fail to load. You now get a proper error message. Fix Level 2.2.116 Changes: 618. [NT] The quick fix at 2.2.115 to ls for Win95 broke the -O option, preventing ls from doing the poll of other machines on the network. (This cause -O to be identical to -o.) This has been fixed. 619. Sort would crash on very large (million line) files. That has been fixed. 620. The quicksort implementation used in ls and sort had a flaw that could produce incorrect results on rare occasions. That's fixed and the result was to improve performance slightly. 621. The new chown and chgrp utilities would complain that a file was on a volume that did not support ownership if the filename didn't start with a driveletter and colon. Also, chown didn't know what to do if it couldn't get the file attributes of a file or directory it was asked to operate on. That's fixed. 622. more would fail on very large (million line) files. It would crash, it would display incorrect line numbers and incorrect percentages. Also, its appetite for memory could be ferocious doing certain operations such as advancing a million lines. All these problems have been fixed. 623. [NT] ls can now handle filesizes larger than 2**32 bytes = 4 GB in size. 624. [NT] su and env now have a new -N option which forces child console apps to run in a new window. Also, by default, they now exit rather than waiting for the child to complete if the child is running in a separate window. A new -w option means always wait for the child. 625. [NT] su was supposed to prompt for a password if needed. That feature didn't work. It does now. 626. The C shell's new pathname command line editing using -P didn't actually work right. It does now. Also, a new -. option means a period should also be treated a pathname punctuation character when using the -P option. 627. The status variable, which captures the return code from the last command that was run, was also being set by any commands run as a part of evaluation the command prompt string. That was certainly counter-intuitive and has been fixed; any status results of evaluating the prompt are now discarded. Fix Level 2.3 Changes: 628. [NT] Typos in the help screens in chown, chgrp, env, ls and xargs were fixed. 629. [NT] su, env, xargs, would not execute commands whose paths were specified as UNC names. That's fixed. 630. tail -c did not work properly collecting a specified number of bytes off the tail end of data read from a pipe. That's fixed. 631. tar had a number of bugs that were fixed. Tar would not properly resynchronize following after scanning past a garbled header in a cpio ASCII or cpio binary file, resulting in repeated spurious messages garbled headers on all following files in the archive. When creating a cpio ASCII or cpio binary archive on disk, if it had to fixup a length field for an ASCII text file that was converted from NT to UNIX line end conventions and that length field happened to fall at just the wrong place relative to the buffer boundaries, tar would write an incorrect length code. When extracting from an archive, if a file was listed in the archive as starting with "." or ".." (e.g., "./foo"), it could not be matched (for extraction) with the same string; it was necessary to drop the leading "." or ".." segment, opposite of what should have been required. 632. sort did not properly consider the preceding field separator as part of a field. This made its count of the fields off by one if the first field started with a space. That's fixed. 633. Moving the cursor forward by word in pathname command line editing mode didn't work right in a couple cases. That's fixed. 634. If a procedure did an "exit 0", the status code from shell was set to 1; other values were preserved properly. That's fixed so that 0 is now preserved properly also. 635. [NT] The C shell now knows how to run executable binaries and scripts that lack any recognizable extension. 636. The C shell now fully supports the #! convention for specifying the language processor that should be used to interpret a script. 637. [NT] Installation instructions have been added to allow associating the C shell with .csh files. 638. References to the company address have been updated to reflect our move on May 1, 1998. 639. A bug in more would cause it to crash in certain situations moving around in a file containing lines larger the high water mark for the heap. That's fixed. 640. More now allows very long search strings, can use regular expressions as search strings and can invert the sense of a match. 641. ls now has a -Q option for quoting any names that contain spaces or other special characters and the C shell now has a new :u editing operator for unquoting and unescaping. Together, these changes now make it simple to iterate over the contents of a directory that may contain files and subdirectories having special characters in their names. 642. Tar now examines the first 32K, not just the first 8K of a file to decide if a file is text. Also, if it guesses wrong, it now issues a warning. 643. [NT] The newer and older -2 option (for rounding to the nearest 2-second boundary) didn't work, always reporting that the first file was older than the rest, no matter what the actual case. It works now. 644. [NT] Cron can now be used to interrogate or change the status for any service, not just cron itself. 645. Not ranges [^...] did not work properly in the C shell in patterns that involved multiple directory levels or in command line editing. They do now. Fix Level 2.3.a Changes: 646. [NT] On international machines, the setenv command and env utilities could fail due a bug in the conversions between Unicode and ASCII. That's fixed. 647. [NT] The dskread and dskwrite utilities now accept a new -S option that allows the volume being read/written to be shared with other processes. 648. [NT] Somehow the installation instructions on the distribution diskettes never got updated for NT 4.0. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.3.b Changes: 649. Tar now supports the new "portable" CPIO format introduced in UNIX System V Release 4. 650. Strings now has a new -u option for extracting UNICODE strings as ordinary printable ASCII. It also does a better job of handling string terminators, reducing the number of trash lines it prints. 651. More had some long-standing bugs that could bite if one scrolled back and forth through text with very, very long lines. All that's fixed. Fix Level 2.3.c Changes: 652. A minor improvement was made to the explanation of the strings -u option was made in the on-line help. 653. More would fail if page up was attempted on a null file. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.3.d Changes: 654. The C shell would only accept #!/bin/csh as an indication that a script should be run in Berkeley mode. It now also accepts #!/usr/bin/csh. 654. du didn't know how to properly report space on a FAT32 partition. It does now. 655. ls would occasionally fail if given a UNC resource name that did not end in a slash or backslash, e.g., \\x\y$. 656. [NT] The C shell no longer bails out during initialization if it can't open a good handle to the keyboard. It just assumes it's running as a detached process (presumably started by CreateProcessAsUser) without necessary permissions to access the desktop and window station. 657. The postage.csh sample script has been updated for the new US postal rates. Fix Level 2.3.e Changes: 658. Escape sequences inside C shell :s/.../.../ search/replace strings weren't working and would cause the shell to crash. That's fixed. 659. The C shell didn't always recognize the #! flags at the beginning of a script if there was space following, before the path. That's fixed. 660. References to $argv[0] in Berkeley mode didn't give the name of the script file. That's fixed. 661. Arg[i] was read-only. That should have been writable and is now. 662. The rules for validating the size and timestamp fields when reading a tar header have been relaxed. A terminating space or null character is no longer required. 663. Tar didn't properly expand a \n as the first character of an ASCII file into \r\n. That works now. 664. New file tests -t (text), -b (binary) and -u (Unicode Ascii text) have been added to the C shell. 665. The C shell no longer writes ANSI escapes to stdout during initialization if it's just doing a single command from the command line. Fix Level 2.3.f Changes: 666. The fix to allow argv[i] to be read/written caused following words to be discarded. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.3.g Changes: 667. The timestmp.csh sample script wasn't quite Y2K correct. It is now. 668. [NT] Attempting to move a directory that was in use as the current directory of a running process should have caused mv to exit immediately with an error. Instead, it'd move all the contents, then complain when it couldn't remove the directory itself. That's fixed. 669. [NT] The ln utility has been added for creating hard links on NTFS partitions. 670. [NT] The showdesk utility has been added, allowing everything currently open on the desktop (except, optionally, the current window) to be minimized to the taskbar. 671. The C shell didn't handle inverted ranges of drive letters (e.g., [^c]:*) properly. That's fixed. 672. The which.csh sample script didn't properly handle commands with extensions. It does now. Fix Level 2.3.h Changes: 673. [NT] The filebox and dirbox utilities for graphically selecting a file or directory have been added. 674. [NT] The setwin utility for hiding the shell window, minimizing it, restoring it, etc., has been added. 675. [NT] The shortcut utility has been added for creating or reporting a shortcut. Fix Level 2.3.i Changes: 676. Tar would not properly copy a file or directory from the root of a mixed case drive into the archive if the name was specified as a drive letter + colon + slash + filename, e.g., c:\hamilton. That's fixed. Another bug that potentially could cause buffer overrun has also been fixed. Fix Level 2.3.j Changes: 677. The diff utility now has a new -o option that allows the maximum window size used for comparing the two files to be constrained. This option is intended to hold compute times down to something reasonable even if at the expense of a less than perfectly optimal comparison for very large (multi-megabyte) files that are very different. 678. [NT] The dirbox utility help screen was incorrect, as if it was for the filebox utility. It should be correct now. Also, some minor changes were made to the option letters and help screen for the filebox utility. Also, neither utility was showing their name they'd been invoked by in either their help screens or any error messages. That's fixed. 679. The help screen for cmp failed to document the -- (end of options) option. It does now. Fix Level 2.3.k Changes: 680. The first character retrieved by a long-form history reference inside a quoted string wasn't properly examined for the possibility that it might be an escape character. Thus, the following failed as follows, but works now: 1 C% echo ^" " 2 C% echo "!$ " echo "^" " csh: Couldn't find the closing " quote. 681. Cycling with the Tab key through the filenames matched using filename completion could crash the shell in situations where the list of matching names was sufficiently long. That's fixed. 682. Command substitutions that evaluated as null strings, e.g., calc echo could crash the shell by attempting to free a string was in fact not allocated on the heap. That's fixed. 683. Minor changes to the make files and some of the source to allow the entire product to be rebuilt for the 64-bit Intel Itanium. 684. [NT] The chown -R (remove ACL) option didn't work. It does now. 685. [NT] mv and cp now copy the security descriptor and any ACLs associated with files or directories being moved or copied, even across partitions. 686. [Win9x] The decimal point key on the number pad didn't work in Num Lock mode under Win9x in csh, des, more, su and tar. (It worked fine under WinNT.) It now works properly on both systems. 687. head and tail were not supposed to expand tabs if the TABS environment variable was not defined. They did anyway; that's fixed. 688. [Win95] The fix to du at release 2.3.d to support FAT32 partitions (on Win98) caused du to fail on Win95. That's fixed. Fix Level 2.3.L Changes: 689. The :h and :r editing commands would hang on filenames containing illegal colons (e.g., aa:b:c:) and unusual dots (e.g., x..). That's fixed. 690. [NT/x86] Null strings were broken causing incorrect results such as % calc echo == '' 0 due to a bug in a new version of the Microsoft assembler used to build the latest versions. This release incorporates a work-around. 691. [NT] Copying the security descriptor associated with a file occasionally caused problems for some customers. mv and cp now have a -s (simple) option to indicate that SD should not be copied. 692. [NT] The showdesk utility didn't wait long enough for all the windows to react. 693. The xargs utility now accepts a new -r option allowing the user to specify a replacement string that should mark where to insert argument words read from stdin into the command template. 694. [NT] The setwin utility now uses a more elegant method of obtaining a handle to the console window on those versions of Windows that support it. 695. [Win9x] Trying to change current directory to a UNC name typed with forward slashes didn't work. It does now. 696. [NT] The C shell now captures the service pack level in the new WinServicePack shell variable, which is now reported in the ver.csh script. 697. [NT] Tar can now copy files as large as 68G to/from a tar-format archive; for CPIO ASCII archives, the individual filesize limit is 8G; for CPIO binary and new portable CPIO archives, the limit is still 4G. Also, the -J and -j options (new portable CPIO formats) didn't work when archiving directories; that's fixed. 698. mv, cp and rm now have a -c (continue) option that allow them to continue even if one of the input files cannot be processed. Fix Level 2.3.m Changes: 699. [Win2K] A bad race condition that's been fine for 14 years under OS/2, NT and Win9x could cause the shell to fail in pipe statements due to the way handle values are more quickly reused under Win2K. That's fixed. 700. [NT/MIPS] Some integer math was overflowing into FP when it shouldn't have. For example, "@ i = 0; calc i + 2**2" printed 4.000000. That's fixed. 701. The postage.csh sample script has been updated to reflect the latest US postage rates. 702. A new decimal.csh sample script has been added which can force a string to be interpreted as a decimal number, overcoming the shell's usual interpretation of anything starting with zero as octal. Fix Level 2.3.n Changes: 703. The mv/rm/cp -c (continue) option added at 2.3.L was on all the time, not just when selected using the -c flag. That's fixed. 704. [NT] du didn't work with just a drive letter, it wanted a colon following. That wasn't as intended and has been fixed. Fix Level 2.3.o Changes: 705. All references to our old Waltham address have been updated to reflect our move back to Sudbury, Massachusetts. 706. The C shell wasn't properly responding to #!/bin/csh lines at the start of a script. It works now. 707. xargs didn't mention the -r option in help screen. It does now. 708. [NT] The du -c option didn't work; it always reported on the C: drive. That's fixed. 709. The update.csh script has been added to the samples directory. 710. The C shell pattern-matching operators !~ and =~ were supposed to treat ':' as an ordinary character. Instead, it treated it as a delimiter. That's fixed. Fix Level 3.0 Changes: 711. The longstanding problem with "ps -s | more" is fixed. Microsoft appears to have changed the way the HKEY_PERFORMANCE_DATA\Counters object works: individual names (e.g., "Virtual Bytes") can appear multiple times in the list, but only the first counter number is actually usable. 712. Support for OS/2, MIPS, PowerPC and Alpha are dropped. 713. All our contact information has been updated. 714. The C shell didn't parse floating point literals of the form nn.nnE-nn correctly. It does now. 715. Postage.csh has been updated with current US postage rates. 716. Colors.csh now resets MoreEOF, DIRECTORIES, SYSTEMFILES, SYSTEMDIRS and HIGHLIGHT, so that if you change to something else (e.g., laptop colors) then back, everything is restored. 717. The cl.csh sample script has been retired. (Current versions of cl.exe supplied with Microsoft Visual Studio work just fine.) Also, the makecpgm.csh sample script now includes user32.lib. 718. The undocumented csh -Q (quiet) option is now documented. 719. The entire product has been rebuilt using the latest Microsoft Visual Studio for Windows XP, though still retaining back-level compatibility with earlier Windows releases. 720. The default for MixedCaseDrives (if that variable's not defined) has been changed: Everything is now mixed case, reflecting the fact that no one's still using 8.3 filenames anymore. 721. Des is now legal to export, so there's no longer a separate export version. 722. Shortcut can now be used to set console properties on the shortcut. 723. The C shell will now look for a startup.csh and login.csh file in the distribution directory, e.g., d:\Program Files\Hamilton C shell 2003, if it doesn't find one in the Home directory. 724. Any inherited value for the SHELL environment variable is discarded; the value of SHELL is always set at startup to be the actual path to this particular csh.exe. 725. The default colors are changed as follows to assume a white on blue window: Color Old default New default Deletions bright red bright white on red Additions bright green bright white on green MorePrompt green red on white MoreFillin white black MoreError bright yellow bright white on red 727. At last(!), the shell comes with an automated install and uninstall using the Microsoft Installer and the Add/Remove Programs applet. 728. The User Guid is now on-line as hypertext and as a Word document. PowerPoint slides deck tutorials on the shell and on Tar and MT have been added. 729. If a popup was generated (e.g., after the 10th command in the demo) after a command that had just scrolled the screen, the popup would be off the top of the window. That's fixed. Fix Level 3.0.a Changes: 730. The PV_Annuity and FV_Annuity calculations were wrong in finance.csh and have been corrected. Also, the Annuity_PV and Annuity_FV procedures have been added. 731. ls encountered a buffer overrun error on any shortname (e.g., c:\progra~1) arguments. That's been fixed. 732. All the hypertext is now Palatino Linotype font rather than Times Roman for better readability. Fix Level 3.0.b Changes: 733. The new auto install would fail on Japanese and other machines with localized names for Start Menu\Programs and Desktop. That's fixed. 734. Chown and chgrp have been substantially reworked to support long Unicode filenames and to fix a bug that caused attempts to recursively take (-rT) a directory tree to fail. 735. A new -c (continue on error) option has been added to mv, cp and rm. Fix Level 3.0.c Changes: 736. Tar had a bug that would cause it to crash if it tried to append a small file onto an archive on tape that didn't even fill a whole block. That's fixed. Fix Level 3.0.d Changes: 737. Tar couldn't copy files larger than 4GB (32-bit length) to an archive. The new limit is 5.85GB (eleven octal digits.) Fix Level 3.0.e Changes: 738. Tar would fail when trying to write a continuation tape. That now works. Fix Level 3.0.f Changes: 739. Tar has been substantially improved. It now supports binary fields in a tar header, allowing a maximum filesize of 8.4M petabytes. Problems reading continuation tapes have been fixed and tar now prompts rather than simply exiting with an error if it's asked to read a continuation tape before the tape has actually been inserted. After reading a tape, tar now ejects as well as rewinds by default. A new -# option has been added as a shortcut for reading and writing the tape drive. The help screen has been somewhat improved. 740. The AllowVistaTapeAccess.csh script and the associated AllowVistaTapeAccess.reg file have been added to the Setup directory and may be used, as described in the tar -h help screen, to grant access to the tape device under Vista Basic or Home Premium. 741. Minor changes were made to chown and chgrp to eliminate a Utf8 sequence from the output and to improve the formatting of the help screen. 742. On very rare occasions, the C shell could crash when a thread exited. That's fixed. 743. The postage.csh sample script has been updated to reflect the latest USPS rate increase as of May 12, 2008. 744. The directory utility has been added. 745. Even if the C shell was installed for "all users," the ACL on it would still only allow access to the user who'd installed it. That's fixed; all the files and various start menu shortcuts, etc., are now ACL'ed to allow read access by all users and power users and full control by administrators, the system, the user who did the installation and the creator/owner. 746. The timestmp.csh sample script would fail on dates in 2008 and 2009 because when it truncated the year to 08 or 09, then tried to print it as a 2-digit decimal, the C shell would complain that it wasn't a valid octal. This also affected the fixup.csh sample script, which used timestmp. 747. The C shell now allows procedure arguments and variable assignments of lists of typed values (ints, floats or strings). Individual elements of a variable can themselves be lists of typed values, allowing pseudo- two-dimensional arrays. 748. Chained editing operations against variables didn't work properly. For example, $a:2-4:# didn't work. Also, there was a memory leak in chained operations. Both these problems have been fixed. 749. The vol utility reported a noise value for the high bits of a volume serial number due to an uninitialized variable. That's fixed. 750. The dirname and posxpath sample utilities now return "." if called with no argument. They used to generate error spew. 751. The percentchg sample utility has been added. 752. The read utility didn't work if less than 2 read variables were specified. It now works properly for all cases. 753. The double backquote,  ... , construct has been introduced. It works like the single backquote version of command substitution,  ... , except that the substituted text is parsed by lines rather than words. This is convenient if the output of the command is a list of filenames, one per line, with spaces in the filenames, e.g., 25 D% whereis whereis D:\Program Files\Hamilton C shell 2003\Bin\whereis.csh 26 D% mi !! It's possible to read a whole file into a variable using this construct. For example: 27 D% @ x = cat parse.c 28 D% foreach i ($x:q) do calc i; end | mi (To avoid having wildcarding being applied to the text, the @-statement is used for reading and the :q quoting operator is used in the foreach.) 754. A bug in the wildcarding caused the shell to lock up with a nonsensical complaint about running out of memory on seemingly simple constructs such as echo *\ has been fixed. Fix Level 3.0.g Changes: 755. A bug was introduced at 3.0.f that caused floating point values to be compared as if they were integers, giving wrong results. That's fixed. 756. An access violation in echo  caused by having failed to rebuild one of the modules in the C shell in 3.0.f has been fixed. 757. The which sample utility could fail sometimes if used in command substitution because it piped data to head to pick off just the first item. If head exited before the first stage completed, the thread would exit with a 232 "pipe is being closed" error status. Which now uses the new ... operator with word selection to pick the first line. 758. Fixed typos and arranged options alphabetically in the help screen for tar. 759. Added a comment to the sunrise.csh sample script noting that west longitudes and north latitudes are positive. 760. Added mention of the -c option to the option summary lines in the help screens for the mv, cp and rm utilities. 761. The AllowVistaTapeAccess.csh and DenyVistaTapeAccess.csh scripts now refuse to do anything unless they're run on Vista. Also, they've been moved to the bin directory. 762. The Word and hypertext (HTML) User Guides have been updated. Also, a PDF version has been added. Fix Level 4.0 Changes: 763. The entire product has been rebuilt under Visual Studio 2008 and a new 64-bit version has been introduced. Performance of the 64-bit version (measured on an Intel Core i7 machine running 64-bit Vista) is about 2x to 3x that of the 32-bit build on the same machine, depending on what's measured. 764. Installation for "all users" is now the default and it no longer requires that the installation be run as administrator. 765. The 32-bit version now knows about the 64-bit Vista file system redirection mechanism that ordinarily redirects any attempts by 32-bit applications to access the \windows\system32 directory to the \windows\SysWOW64 directory. (Vista does this so that 32-bit apps will load the 32-bit versions of all the system DLLs. But it has effect of making programs that ship only as 64-bit versions, like telnet.exe, inaccessible.) Once they start up, the C shell and all the utilities now disable that redirection, thus allowing them to access the system32 directory. 766. The default startup.csh script now unsetenv's the CshTitle variable so that if you start a 64-bit version of the C shell from a 32-bit version, it'll update the title. 767. The xargs utility has been improved. If the C shell is used to run the command because it appears to be an alias, xargs now allows for the possibility the expansion might grow the command by 1024 bytes. Also, xargs used to stop if the child returned any non-zero return code. That was awkward because grep and fgrep return 1 for no matches. Xargs now stops by default only if the return code is > 1. If it does stop because the return code was over the limit, it generates an error message. 768. The postage.csh sample script has been updated to reflect the new US postage rates effective May 11, 2009. 769. The deltahrs.csh sample script has been added. 770. The update.csh, ts.csh and duplicat.csh sample scripts now use the ... whole-line command substitution operator so they'll work properly with filenames containing spaces and special characters. 771. The ls -Q option now inserts escape characters before any special characters rather than single-quoting the entire filename. 772. The listreg utility has been added. 773. The shortcut -d (starting directory) option will now be taken as a literal rather than expanded to a full path if the first character is a percent sign signifying that it's a Windows shell variable, e.g., %USERPROFILE%. 774. The memberi sample script, which does a case-insensitive search to see if a given value is a member of a list, has been added and is now used in the default login.csh script to determine if the C shell's bin and samples directories are already on the search path. 775. The C shell didn't correctly evaluate the path variable if evaluated as a typed value in an expression. It does now. 776. If the C shell is run as administrator on Vista, it prepends "Administrator: " to the default title. 777. Cmd.exe has a bug that causes problems running scripts using the /c command line option if both the path to the script and at least one argument to the script contain spaces. For example, c:\>cat "\Users\Nicole\folder with space\test.cmd" echo %1 %2 c:\>"\users\nicole\folder with space\test.cmd" "hello world" c:\>echo "hello world" "hello world" c:\>cmd /c "\users\nicole\folder with space\test.cmd" "hello world" '\users\nicole\folder' is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file. This caused problems for the C shell running commands that invoked .cmd or .bat files. But a workaround, which the C shell now uses is to paste an extra set of double quotes around the scriptname and the arguments: c:\>cmd /c ""\users\nicole\folder with space\test.cmd" "hello world"" c:\>echo "hello world" "hello world" 778. su required some minor changes for Vista and Win7. The command line argument to CreateProcessAsUser cannot be a pointer to a literal or read-only memory. Also, error mode was adjusted to allow popups if the child doesn't start properly (which can happen if you try to su a userid that's a member of the administrators group but isn't specifically =the= administer userid. 779. The timestmp.csh, basename.csh, percentchg.csh and newfiles.csh sample scripts now give error messages or sensible results if invoked without any arguments. 780. env now waits for the child to finish if it's running in the same window. 781. tar no longer quits with an error if it can't read a directory (usually because it doesn't have access rights.) It now just gives a warning and continues. 782. A bug in the set statement that could cause it to fail inside a procedure as in this example has been fixed: 1 C% proc foo() 2 C? set nonomatch = 2 3 C? end 4 C% foo 5 C% foo csh(line 2): The predefined variable 'nonomatch' cannot be a string. > in foo( ) defined at line 1 < called from line 5 Fix Level 4.0.a Changes: 783. mv, cp and rm are now full Unicode apps. This means they can now work on files and directories with Unicode names they previously couldn't manipulate. Also, error messages when a file or directory is in use by another process or if access is denied have been improved. 784. chown no longer requires you specify an owner with the -R (remove ACL) option. Fix Level 4.0.b Changes: 785. Formatting of some of the new error messages in mv, cp and rm could crash. That's fixed. 786. The uptime sample script has been added. 787. ls is now a full Unicode app and can now traverse directories with long Unicode filenames. 788. If argv contained more than one word, references that used expression notation would fail. For example: 1 C% set argv = hello world 2 C% calc $argv # Worked hello world 3 C% calc argv # Crashed 789. If the output string was exactly 511 characters long, echo would paste a superfluous null character onto the end, just before the CR-LF combination. That's fixed. Fix Level 4.1 Changes: 790. The C shell now knows how to start processes that require elevation. 791. The C shell .msi installation file and all the executables inside it are now signed using our new code signing certificate. This means that when you try to install the C shell or anytime elevation is required (in particular, when you run su), UAC will post a blue popup indicating that the file is from Hamilton Laboratories, a verified publisher. (Previously, UAC showed the yellow popup associated with an unknown publisher.) 792. The su utility has been improved: a. It now has a manifest marking it as requiring elevation. b. If it's running in a new window because its parent process wasn't running elevated, su will: 1. Size the window and buffer and set up the colors. 2. Pause, by default, before exiting if it encounters an error or displays help information or if the child it starts exits with a return code higher than allowed. (This is to avoid messages disappearing before they can be read.) 3. Use a login shell if it starts the C shell. c. "." and ".\." are recognized as aliases for the current user. Also, su no longer tries to do a login for the current user; it knows it already has the identity and rights it needs. So it treats this case as an elevation instead. d. su is now a full Unicode application. e. Under Windows 7, GUI applications wouldn't start properly and couldn't paint their windows. That's fixed. But the Open file dialog still fails but this may be a Windows 7 problem related to Libraries. 793. Both ; and ; forms of command substitution used to erroneously generate a single word containing the nullstring. They now properly generate no words at all. 794. The which sample utility would generate an error dump if there were no matches found. It now generates no output at all if there are no matches. 795. The 32-bit version of filebox wouldn't run properly on 64-bit Windows 7 because it tried to turn off filesystem redirection. That caused the GetOpenFileName() system API call to fail. That's fixed, though it does mean the 32-bit version of filebox can't be used to browse the 64-bit Windows system directories. 796. chown and chgrp now use the unified longpath code. 797. more now uses the new unified error message code. 798. If the C shell can't find a command, it now sets the status to 2 (file not found) instead of 1 (incorrect function.) This is helpful if you try to run a command that's not found with the C shell under either su or xargs. su will pause to let you see the message and xargs will stop trying to run more commands if the return code > 1. 799. When the C shell is running as administrator, it will now paste "Administrator:" onto the front of the console window title when it runs a child. 800. The C shell will now change the console window title when it runs a command passed on the command line using -c. 801. Searching for a string that's wrapped the end of the line on the screen failed to match in more with regex either on or off. It now works for both cases. 802. The C shell's -C and -c options now treat the rest of the command line arguments as whole literal words, even if they contain spaces or special characters like semicolons and quotes. The result is that something like this now behaves as expected: csh -c ls '\Program Files' 803. The C shell no longer insists that commands must end with a new line. End-of-file is now accepted. 804. The gi, assoc, ftype, shutdown, reboot, pss, killp and sudo aliases have been added to startup.csh. 805. env -i crashed. It's now fixed. Also, the start alias in startup.csh now uses env -N instead of cmd /c start. Fix Level 4.1.a Changes: 806. A bug introduced at 4.1 caused several utilities including ls and others to crash with an assert failure if the (no longer needed) MIXEDCASEDRIVES environment variable was defined. That's fixed. 807. In sed, if the line number corresponding to the beginning of a range was deleted, the range was never entered. If it was the end of the range, the range never exited. That's fixed. 808. The C shell and utilities now use the same common error message facility. The C shell no longer word-wraps its messages. This also fixes a crash that could happen in the C shell due to a buffer overrun in the C shell's word wrap code. 809. A bug was introduced into more at 4.1 that caused string search to fail to match if there weren't at least 2 characters preceding on the line. That's fixed. 810. chown and chgrp could fail to take ownership of some long Unicode paths because they hadn't normalized the path and would then crash in the error message routine. That's fixed. 811. The MakeShortcuts setup script used whoami and cacls to set permissions but didn't consider the possibility of a user id with a space. It does now. 812. A change made to su at 4.1 caused it to fail on XP because it didn't give sufficient access rights to the desktop and window station to the child. That's fixed. 813. A longstanding bug caused the C shell to include the line number in error messages even for the current line once either ^C or a blank line was typed. That's fixed. Fix Level 5.0 Changes: 814. The rcode sample utility now flushes stdout before exiting to ensure that its output isn't lost. (Amazing this bug was there so long.) 815. Fix #813 in 4.1.a traded one bug for another, causing line numbers to fail to count blank lines. That's fixed. 816. The change to the common error message facility at 4.1.a introduced a bug that caused the shell to crash when trying to report syntax errors in scripts as in the following example. That's fixed. 2 C% csh -B Hamilton C shell(tm) x64 Release 4.1.a Copyright (c) 1988-2010 by Hamilton Laboratories. All rights reserved. [2] 1 C% basename$shell 817. Attempting to mv and cp a relative name from a UNC current directory didn't work, producing an error message. That's fixed. Also some error messages were improved. By default, mv and cp no longer copy security information; to request security information be copied, use the +s option. This is to be more in keeping with Windows convention that security is largely inherited through the directory structure. Also, mv and cp now ignore the read-only attribute on a destination directory in keeping with Windows convention. 818. des had buffer overrun bugs in both the input and output routines that could cause it to crash. It was most easily triggered attempting to using the -dr options to decrypt a file that wasn't a valid encrypted file. That's fixed. 819. chown -D now uses inheritance rules to construct an ACL, based on the ACL on the parent. 820. The splitstring.csh and findinclude.csh scripts have been added to the Samples directory. 821. The su utility has been rewritten to use the Secondary Logon service when creating a process as a different user and to spawn a child copy of itself with the new (either elevated or different user) credentials as an interlude that handshakes with the parent so as to pass the environment and current directories to command being run. 822. If the current directory is on a UNC drive, filename completion always lower-cased the result. It should have treated the UNC drive as normally mixed case. That's fixed. 823. The pathname editing operators, :h, :r, :t, etc., didn't work sensibly on history references containing quotes. For example, 1 C% echo 'a b\c d.e f' a b\c d.e f 2 C% echo !$:h echo 'a b csh: Couldn't find the closing ' quote. The operators now assume that if a closing quote is trimmed off either end of a history reference, it should be added back to the final result. If a history reference has to be rewritten into a fullpath for editing, the operators assume it's safe to remove any paired quotes so long as the result is requoted with single quotes. 1 C% echo 'a b\c d.e f' a b\c d.e f 2 C% echo !$:h echo 'a b' a b Fix Level 5.0.a Changes: 824. The fix to the buffer overrun problem in des in 5.0 introduced a regression, causing des to occasionally append a few junk characters onto the end of a decypted file. That's fixed. 825. ls "" failed in a needless assert. It should have simply reported that '' (a null filename) does not exist. That's fixed. 826. Links in the hypertext user guide are no longer underlined, even in Google Chrome. 827. chown now works across the network. Previously, it failed because it tried changing ownership to itself, a foreign userid. Windows only allows locally-known userids as owners. 828. directory now knows to paste a trailing \r\n onto the result. Also, it's now a full Unicode app writing Utf8 output and can accept a list of special folder names. Fix Level 5.0.b Changes: 829. binedit, diff, env, exec, paste, shortcut, sort, su, uniq, uu and xargs all had the same off-by-one error in parsing command line options that caused them to crash if the last argv word was an option that expected an argument in the next word. They should have given a usage error message. That's fixed. 830. sort had an off-by-one error in the way it parsed fields, causing it to include the preceding separator in each field. That's wrong but it usually worked because every comparison always had the same erroneous prefix for both records. It failed with numeric fields if the separator was something other than a comma. That's fixed. Fix Level 5.0.c Changes: 831. The C shell had two bugs affecting list value assignments. One was caused by freeing memory that was still in use here: 1 C% set a = now is the time 2 C% set b = hello world 3 C% set c = 4 C% @ c[0] = 1/7 5 C% @ c[1] = b 6 C% @ c[0] = a 7 C% calc c The other was an assignment (=) inside an if that was supposed to test (==) if an indexed value was itself a list and if so, free the list. 1 C% set a = now is the time 2 C% set c = 3 C% @ c[0] = 1/7 4 C% @ c[0] = a 5 C% calc c 832. The C shell had two memory leaks affecting command substitution, e.g., demonstrated running the following with heapstats enabled: 1 C% for i = 1 to 10 do 2 C? echo echo hello 3 C? heapstat 4 C? end One leak affected both ... and ... forms, the other only the latter form. Both leaks have been fixed. 833. If a list was passed to a procedure, it wasn't properly matched to the formal arguments. It did this, which was wrong; $#x should (and now does) evaluate to 2. 1 C% set a = hello world 2 C% proc f(x) 3 C? echo$#x $x 4 C? end 5 C% @ f(a) 1 hello world x was improperly set to a single "word", consisting of a list of 2 words. It should have been set to the list of 2 words. 834. The C shell leaked the result value of an @ statement if the result was a list of words or values, not just a number or a string. E.g., 1 C% set a = hello world 2 C% for i = 1 to 10 do 3 C? @ b = a 4 C? heapstat 5 C? end (The calc statement was fine because it always coerced results to strings, which it freed.) 835. The result of substr(), upper(), lower() and reverse() was always memory leaked. That's fixed. Fix Level 5.0.d Changes: 836. The sort utility's -n and -N fields now expect integers to be decimal only, consistent with the Posix specification. The old behavior, also accepting octal and hex integers, is available as -x and -X. Fix Level 5.0.e Changes: 837. The copyright dates in whereis.csh and in all the samples files have been updated. 838. The postage.csh sample script has been updated to reflect US postage rates effective January 22, 2012. 839. If su's parent process was running as administrator, it couldn't tell, causing it to think it was running in a new window. That caused it to re-initialize the window and pause before exiting when it shouldn't. That's fixed. Fix Level 5.0.f Changes: 840. csh -N (no space added after file completion) is now the default. A new -S option allows adding a space. 841. fullmixedpath with no operand crashed the C shell with an access violation. That's fixed. 842. Exiting a script with a return code of 995 (ERROR_OPERATION_ABORTED) was incorrectly interpreted as a Ctrl-C interrupt. Also, exiting with an actual Ctrl-C resulted in status code 995. The correct status code when exiting from an interrupt under Windows is 0. The problem could be demonstrated as follows: onintr echo "Someone pressed ctrl+c..." echo "exit 995" > testexit.csh testexit.csh 843. Any readme files that lacked an extension in the distribution have been renamed as Readme.txt files. 844. Labels in sed have been improved. Sed didn't correctly parse labels in : (definition), b (branch) and t (test) operations unless the label name was followed by white space. It should have and now accepts semicolons and right curly braces as delimiters, as in this example: sed ':top; s/a/b/' Also, branching to a label outside a block used recursion. That usually worked but not if it kept looping; eventually it would overrun the stack, as in this example. (It's an infinite loop but it should still work and shouldn't crash.) sed ':top ; { P; b top }' Labels in sed are now scoped and can be redefined inside a nested {...} group and forward references to the nested redefinition work as they should. Labels can also be redefined at a given nesting level. Previous references continue to refer to the previous definition, new references refer to the new one. Branching to a label in an outer group properly exits the group, unwinding the stack. But because they're now scoped, it is not possible to branch to a label inside a nested group (just as in any other HLL.) All -e, -f and command line scripts are considered to be one big nesting level sharing the same label names. These examples now work: sed 'b top; :top; s/a/b/; :top; s/b/C' sed ':top; /a/{s/a/b/; b top}' sed 'b top; :top; /a/{b top; :top; s/a/b/; :top; s/b/C/}; /a/{b top}' 845. If directory is invoked with no foldernames specified as arguments, it now lists the symbolic names and locations of all the special folders for the individual user or for all users. 846. The Win32 api GetFileAttributes() fails on \pagefile.sys because the file is in use, making it appear the file doesn't exist. The workaround when GetFileAttributes fails is to use FindFirstFile to retrieve the attributes. This change affects the C shell, chgrp, chmod, chown, cmp, cp, cron, diff, ln, ls, mkdir, mv, rm, tar, touch and uu. Fix Level 5.1 Changes: 847. Fix 846 introduced a regression to the Unicode apps that's now fixed. 848. The broken sunrise.csh and unixprof samples, the archaic Microsoft Word and PDF versions of the User Guide and the archaic PowerPoint tutorials and the unnecessary shortcuts to the release notes have all been deleted from the distribution. 849. The default startup.csh setkeys F1 to opening the the user guide. 850. The output of setkey wasn't formatted properly. It is now. Fix Level 5.1.a Changes: 851. Login.csh had a huge mistake in trying to set cdpath to include all the *:\"Program Files" directories. This was very slow if you have network drives. The default cdpath is now just your home directory and the desktop directories. The comments in both login.csh and startup.csh have also been updated. 852. Improvements to the formatting of the user guide including switching from Palatino (serif) to Verdana (sans serif) font, using bordered text instead of images for the keys on the keyboard (e.g., in the page on command line editing), highlighting keywords, command names, etc., with a border and a light blue background and using larger fixed pitch font in many of the tables. Fix Level 5.1.b Changes: 853. sort now has additional options: -R to normalize line ends, -s stable sort and -v verbose output from a -c check sort. Check sorts with -c always reported the input was ordered even if it wasn't; that's fixed. 854. filebox -h had a typo. Use -i to specify an initial directory, not -d. Also, the -e option now follows the same syntax as -f and is automatically added to the head of the list of filters. 855. dirbox now uses the new resizable dialog box, the options have been reduced to only those that make sense when choosing a file or directory and the -i initial path option now works. If a non-existent path is typed into the edit box, the OK button is greyed. 856. Path hashing is now turned on before running startup.csh and login.csh. This was causing a problem with the default login.csh script, which saved and restored the state but ended up causing login copies to run with path hashing turned off. 857. The undocumented -t (text), -b (binary) and -u (unicode) file test operators added at 2.3.e have been removed. 858. The -x (executable) and -z (zero length) file test operators weren't thread-safe. They didn't properly setup and release the current directories when calling Win32 file operations. The could fail if another thread changed the process directories, e.g.: cd .. &; calc -x hello.exe 859. New -t (timestamp) and -s (size) file operators have been added. -t returns a string of the form "YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss", e.g., "2012-11-25 14:25:04". If the path doesn't exist or doesn't have a timestamp (as, e.g., is the case for C:\) -t returns null; this is not an error. The -t operator allows times to be compared or pattern-matched. For example foreach i ( * ) if (-t$i =~ "2012*") echo $i changed in 2012; end if (-t$a > -t $b) echo$a is newer than \$b -s returns the size in bytes. If the path doesn't exist or is a directory, -s returns null; this is not an error. Fix Level 5.1.c Changes: 860. sort didn't parse short records properly. If a key specified a character offset that was past the end of a particular record, comparisons of that record were unpredictable. That's fixed. 861. The -l (logging) option for mv, cp and rm had a bug that caused them to spew garbage ANSI sequences resulting in black on black characters. Known Bugs and Limitations 1. The keyboard editing logic only checks to see if the cursor's been moved by a background process or thread when it reads the first keystroke. That catches most situations, but if you begin typing a command and then some background activity starts writing to the screen or moving the cursor, the result can be a scrambled display. 2. Ctrl-S and Ctrl-Q flow control to the console window is not supported. 3. Under Windows 7, the 32-bit version of the C shell can't tell when a child console application, e.g., su, will start up as an elevated process in a separate window. So it waits for it to complete rather than automatically prompting for a new command. The workaround is to use the & operator to tell the C shell to run it as a background process. 4. Long Unicode paths (e.g., \\?\c:\Windows) on the command line don't get passed to child processes correctly because the wildcarding done by the Microsoft setargv and wsetargv library routines fails if the path actually exists; it works if the path does not exist. The workaround is to add an extra backslash to the front of the path. Thank you for using Hamilton C shell. Nicole Hamilton November 27, 2012 Hamilton Laboratories 16645 NE 46th Street Redmond, WA 98052-5441 U.S.A. Telephone: 425-497-0102 Cellphone: 425-765-9574 Email: hamilton@hamiltonlabs.com Web Site: http://www.hamiltonlabs.com